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377 plants native to Tahoe


101
Juncus balticus is a species of rush known by the common name Baltic rush. It is native to a large part of North and South America. In California it is very widespread and occurs in every county. It is a plant of wetlands and other mesic places, though sometimes found in non-wetland areas. It prefers freshwater but can handle some salinity. It spreads by a rhizome and will occupy any suitably moist area. It will hybridize with many other Juncus species. There is one recognized subspecies at this...
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102
Juncus xiphioides is a species of rush known by the common name irisleaf rush. It is native to the southwestern United States and Baja California where it grows in wet areas in many habitat types. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing erect stems to a maximum height between about 40 and 80 centimeters. It has wide leaf blades for a rush, often exceeding one centimeter in width at the base. The few straw-colored leaves reach up to 40 centimeters in length. The large flower cluster has ma...
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103
Hairy False Goldenaster (Heterotheca villosa) is a native perennial herb that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is moderately fast growing and short-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 3 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and striking, and bloom in the mid summer. Leaves are gray-green and deciduous. It tends to grow in crevices, at elevations from 1300-10200 feet.


104
Woods' Rose (Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana) is a native shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in moist places, at elevations from 3500-11500 feet.


105
Symphoricarpos mollis, with the common names creeping snowberry, Southern California snowberry, and trip vine, is a shrub in the Honeysuckle Family (Caprifoliaceae). It is found in western North America from British Columbia to California inland to Nevada and Idaho. The shrub does well in warm climates and can tolerate both intense sun and constant shade. It is a plant of chaparral ecosystems, especially along coastlines.


106
Sambucus racemosa is a species of elderberry known by the common names red elderberry and Red-berried Elder. It is native to Europe, northern temperate Asia, and North America across Canada and the United States. It grows in riparian environments, woodlands, and other habitats, generally in moist areas. Sambucus racemosa is often a treelike shrub growing 2-6 metres (6. 6-19. 7 ft) tall. The stems are soft with a pithy center. Each individual leaf is composed of 5 to 7 leaflike leaflets, each o...
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107
Rydberg's Penstemon (Penstemon rydbergii) is a native perennial herb that grows in Central and Northern California, primarily in the High Sierra Nevada region. It is moderately fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 3 feet, with active growth during the spring. Flowers are blue and striking, and bloom in the mid summer. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in moist meadows and streambanks, at elevations from 3,900-10,200 feet.


108
Juncus bufonius, known as Toad Rush, is a common annual species in the Juncaceae family found worldwide. It grows in moist and muddy places and is considered a weed in many areas. This is an annual monocot that is quite variable in appearance. It is sometimes described as a complex of variants labeled with one species name. There are three recognized varieties in California that are weakly delineated and have overlapping ranges. It is generally a green clumping grasslike rush with many thin stem...
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109
Acmispon amiericanus is a native annual herb in the Fabaceae (Legume) family that grows in Northern, Southern and Central California in most habitats except desert. It tends to grow in streambanks and wet places, at elevations from sea level to 7,900 feet, often in disturbed areas. As with other members of this genus, it is not often used in gardens but is useful for restoration projects.


110
Juncus nevadensis is a species of rush known by the common name Sierra rush. It is native to much of western North America from British Columbia to New Mexico, where it grows in wet areas in many habitat types. In California it is found primarily in the Sierras. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb that is variable in appearance. Its thin, smooth stems reach a maximum height between 10 and 70 centimeters. The thin green leaves may be up to 30 centimeters long. The flower clusters generally conta...
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111
Hardstem Bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) is a native grass that grows in northern, southern and central California.Schoenoplectus acutus (Scirpus acutus, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Scirpus lacustris subsp. acutus), called tule, common tule, hardstem tule, tule rush, hardstem bulrush, or viscid bulrush, is a giant species of sedge in the plant family Cyperaceae, native to freshwater marshes all over North America. Tules once lined the shores of Tulare Lake, California, formerly the largest freshwa...
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112
Bromus carinatus is a species of native bunchgrass known by the common names California Brome and Mountain Brome. It is native to western North America from Alaska to northern Mexico, where it can be found in many types of habitat. It is found in every county in California. It is a perennial grass growing in clumps 0.5 to 1.5 meters tall, with many narrow leaves up to 40 centimeters long. The flower cluster is a spreading or drooping array of flat spikelets longer than they are wide. The grass i...
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113
Sticky Cinquefoil (Drymocallis glandulosa) is a common native perennial herb in the Rosaceae (Rose) family. It is found in most part of the state except the deserts and central valley. It is moderately fast growing and moderately long-lived. It resembles a strawberry plant, and they are related. It grows in an upright form to a height of 1.5 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. It forms clumps or tufts much like strawberry plants. It may have rhizomes. The stalk has numerous st...
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114
Lupinus latifolius is a species of lupine known by the common name broadleaf lupine. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Baja California to New Mexico, where it is common and can be found in several types of habitat. There are several subtaxa, described as subspecies or varieties, some common and some rare. They vary in morphology. In general this plant is an erect perennial herb. It grows 30 centimeters to over two meters in height, in texture hairy to nearly hairless...
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115
Salix lasiandra is a native willow tree that grows in virtually every county of the state in wetland-riparian areas. It is a suckering willow that will extend its roots and spread into any area that has sufficient moisture. It was formerly classified as a subspecies of Salix lucida, and some sources may still refer to it by that name. There are two recognized Varieties: Var. lasiandra is widespread. Var. caudata (Shining Willow) is less common and restricted to the Sierras and northward. Like al...
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116
Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the Ponderosa Pine, Bull Pine, Blackjack Pine, or Western Yellow Pine, is a widespread and variable pine native to western North America. It was first described by David Douglas in 1826, from eastern Washington near present-day Spokane. It is a dominant tree in the Kuchler plant association Ponderosa shrub forest. Like most western pines, the ponderosa is associated with mountainous topography. It is found on the Black Hills and on foothills and mid-height peak...
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117
Phacelia ramosissima is a species in the Boraginaceae (Borage) family known by the common name Branching Phacelia. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to the southwestern United States, where it can be found in many types of habitats. It is variable in appearance, and there are many intergrading Varieties: In general it is a spreading or sprawling prostrate or upright perennial herb which may approach 1.5 meters in stem length. It is hairless to densely hairy, and some pe...
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118
Cirsium occidentale is a species of thistle known by the common name cobwebby thistle. This plant may be short or quite tall, forming low clumps or towering to heights approaching 3 meters. The leaves are dull gray-green to bright white due to a coating of hairs, and the most basal ones on large plants may be nearly half a meter in length. The petioles are winged and spiny and the leaves are toothed or edged with triangular lobes. The flower cluster at the top of the whitish stem holds one to se...
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119
Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara Buckthorn, Cascara, Bearberry, and in the Chinook Jargon, Chittam or Chitticum; syn. Frangula purshiana, Rhamnus purshianus) is a species of buckthorn native to western North America from southern British Columbia south to central California, and inland to western Montana. It is the largest species of buckthorn, occasionally growing up to 15 meter tall, though more commonly a large shrub or small tree 5-10 meter tall, with a trunk 20-50 centimeter in diameter. The bar...
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120
Artemisia ludoviciana is a species of sagebrush known by several common names, including silver wormwood, white sagebrush, and gray sagewort. It is native to North America where it is widespread coast to coast, but many subspecies are found only in the western United States. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing to heights between 30 centimeters and one meter. The stems bear linear leaves up to 11 centimeters long. The stems and foliage are covered in woolly gray or white hairs. The top ...
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121
Juncus tenuis, the slender rush, is a clump-forming, round-stemmed perennial in the Juncaceae (rush family). Slender rush grows to be between 15 and 60 cm tall. Generally considered a weed, it is rarely sold by retailers as a household container plant. Where it is introduced, it is colloquially called path rush, field rush, slender yard rush, poverty rush or wiregrass. The leaves of the plant all come from the base and are not nearly as tall as the stems. The stems are partly covered by sheaths,...
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122
Athyrium filix-femina (Lady Fern or Common Lady-fern) is a large, feathery species of fern native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, where it is often abundant (one of the more common ferns) in damp, shady woodland environments and is often grown for decoration. The plant is caespitose (the fronds arising from a central point as a clump rather than along a rhizome). The fronds are light yellow-green, 20-90 centimeter long and 5-25 centimeter broad; they are deciduous. Sori ap...
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123
The mountain shrub Spiraea densiflora has several common names, including mountain spiraea, dense-flowered spiraea, rosy spiraea, and subalpine spiraea. It is found on the west coast of North America from California to British Columbia. It grows at elevations between 2,000 and 11,000 feet on inland mountain ranges. It is a woody shrub rarely reaching a meter in height. It has light green toothed leaves which turn yellow as cold weather approaches. The plant bears fragrant, fuzzy pom-pons of bri...
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124
Erysimum capitatum is a species of wallflower known commonly as the sanddune wallflower, western wallflower, or prairie rocket. It is a mustard-like plant with thin, erect stems growing from a basal rosette and topped with dense bunches of variably colored flowers. Flowers are most typically bright golden, yellow, tangerine-colored, but plants in some populations may have red, white or purple flowers. Each flower has four flat petals. Seed pods are nearly-parallel to the stem. Although quite var...
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125
Western Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. demissa) is a native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is fast growing and short-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 20 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are white and striking, and bloom in the spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in rocky slopes, at elevations from 0-8200 feet.


126
Deschampsia elongata is a species of grass known by the common name slender hairgrass. It is native to western North America from Alaska to Wyoming to northern Mexico, and South America in Chile. It grows at all elevations, often in moist areas. It is a perennial grass forming dense clumps sometimes exceeding a meter in height. Most of the leaves are located in a tuft about the base of the stems. The flower cluster is a thin row of V-shaped spikelets arranged parallel to and mostly flat against ...
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127
Brackens (Pteridium) are a genus comprising several species of large, coarse ferns. Ferns (Pteridophyta) are vascular plants that have alternating generations, large plants that produce spores and small plants that produce sex cells (eggs and sperm). Brackens are in the family Dennstaedtiaceae, which are noted for their large, highly divided leaves. They are commonly found on moorland. Brackens are cosmopolitan, being found on all continents except Antarctica and in all environments except deser...
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128
Fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium) is a native perennial herb in the Onagraceae (Evening Primrose) family that grows primarily in the Sierras and North Coast Ranges, with scattered locations elsewhere in the state. It is a pioneer species that is most often seen in burned forest areas. After fire or disturbance is can become the dominant species in an area. As trees and large shrubs return, Fireweed disappears. The attractive flowers have four magenta to pink petals, 2 to 3 cm in diameter, and h...
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129
Camassia quamash, commonly known as camas, small camas, common camas, common camash or quamash, is a perennial herb. It is one species of the genus Camassia and is native to western North America in large areas of southern Canada and the northwestern United States, from British Columbia and Alberta to California and east from Washington state to Montana and Wyoming. Though the once-immense spreads of camas lands have diminished because of modern developments and agriculture, numerous camas prai...
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130
California Oatgrass (Danthonia californica) is a native grass that grows primarily in northern and central California, in the Coast Ranges and Sierras. It tends to grow in moist meadows and open places, at elevations from 500-7200 feet. It can be an attractive garden grass for the areas where it is native.


131
Calochortus leichtlinii is a species of flowering plant in the lily family known by the common names Leichtlin's mariposa, smokey mariposa, and mariposa lily. The plant is native to the Sierra Nevada and Modoc Plateau of California and adjacent parts of the Great Basin in southeastern Oregon and western Nevada. It grows in coniferous forest and chaparral habitats, including the lowest grassy hills-such as along the Sierra Nevada boundary with the Central Valley and agriculture. Calochortus leich...
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132
Fritillaria atropurpurea is a species of fritillary known by several common names, including spotted fritillary, purple fritillary, spotted mountainbells, and spotted missionbells. This wildflower is native to the western United States, where it is often found beneath trees in moldy leaf litter. This species has the widest distribution of the fritillaries, growing from California to the Dakotas. The stems may reach anywhere from 10 to 60 centimeters in height and bear narrow, pointed leaves at n...
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133
Pinus lambertiana (commonly known as the sugar pine or sugar cone pine) is the tallest and most massive pine tree, and has the longest cones of any conifer. It is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine occurs in the mountains of Oregon and California in the western United States, and Baja California in northwestern Mexico; specifically the Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, and Sierra San Pedro Mar...
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134
Montia parvifolia is a species of flowering plant in the purslane family known by the common names littleleaf minerslettuce, small-leaved blinks and small-leafed montia. It is native to western North America from Alaska to California to Montana, where it grows in moist to wet areas in several types of mountain habitat. Montia parvifolia is a perennial herb growing erect to about 40 centimeters tall from a matted, branching caudex base. It spreads via leafy stolons with sprouting bulblets. The fl...
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135
Pseudognaphalium canescens (syn. Gnaphalium canescens) is a species of flowering plant in the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family known by the common name Wright's Cudweed. It is native to western North America from western Canada to northern Mexico. It can be found in many habitats, from mountains to plateau to coastline. The many-branched stem is erect to a maximum height of around a meter. It is gray-green and woolly with many narrow leaves. Atop the stem branches are flower clusters of several poi...
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136
Aconitum columbianum is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common names Columbian monkshood or western monkshood. This wildflower is native to western North America where it grows in moist areas. It is a spindly, twining perennial plant with lobed or toothed leaves and long stems with far-spaced flowers. The folded, wrinkly flowers are often deep blue or purple, but may also be white or yellowish, and they usually have a spur. The fruits are pod-like follicles. Lik...
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137
The common wildflower Hieracium albiflorum is known by the names white hawkweed and white-flowered hawkweed. It is found in western North America, from Alaska to California and east to the Rockies. Some hawkweeds were introduced to North America and are invasive weeds in the region, but white hawkweed is native and is a part of the balanced ecology. It is shaped like a dandelion, with hairy, elliptical leaves and long stalks that bear small white flowers with serrated petals. The plant is found...
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138
Rusty Slender Sedge (Carex subfusca) is a native grass that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in moist, open places, at elevations from 0-3000 feet. Like other wetland plants it will spread to fill any moist area. It will become deciduous in summer dryness.


139
Ribes cereum is a species of currant known by the common names wax currant and squaw currant (R. c. var. pedicellare is known as whisky currant). It is native to western North America, including British Columbia, Alberta, and much of the western United States, from Washington, Oregon, and California east as far as the western Dakotas and the Oklahoma Panhandle. Ribes cereum grows in several types of habitat, including mountain forests in alpine climates, sagebrush, and woodlands. It can grow in ...
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140
Prunus andersonii is a species of shrub in the rose family, part of the same genus as the peach, cherry, and almond. Its common names include desert peach and desert almond. It is native to eastern California and western Nevada, where it grows in forests and scrub in desert and mountains. Prunus andersonii is a shrub approaching two meters (80 inches) in height, its tangling branches narrowing to spiny-tipped twigs. Serrated, lance-shaped to oval leaves occur in clusters, each leaf measuring up ...
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141
Actaea rubra (red baneberry, chinaberry, doll's eye) is a poisonous herbaceous flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae, native to North America. They are found growing in shady areas with moist to wet soils, open forest or dry slopes. In Alaska it ranges from the Kenai Peninsula, through Kodiak Island, Bristol Bay, and up the Yukon River. Ecology. Plants are slow growing and take a few years to grow large enough to flower. The western subspecies is ssp. arguta, and the northern subspecies is...
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142
Viola adunca is a species of violet known by the common names hookedspur violet, early blue violet, sand violet, and western dog violet. It is native to meadows and forests of western North America, Canada, and the northern contiguous United States. This is a hairy, compact plant growing from a small rhizome system. The leaves are spade- or heart-shaped, sometimes with broadly wavy margins. They are generally 1 to 4 centimeters long. The single-flowered inflorescence grows at the end of a long, ...
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143
Hordeum brachyantherum is a species of barley known by the common name meadow barley. It is native to western North America from Alaska to northern Mexico, far eastern Russia, and parts of eastern North America. It can be found in other parts of the world as an introduced species. This is a tufting perennial grass approaching a meter in maximum height. It produces compact, narrow flower clusters 8 to 10 centimeters long and purplish in color. Like other barleys the spikelets come in triplets. It...
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144
Penstemon azureus is a species of penstemon known by the common name azure penstemon. It is native to the mountains of Oregon and northern California, where it grows in coniferous forests and woodlands. It is a perennial herb, woody toward the base, with many thin branches reaching up to about 70 centimeters in maximum height. The oppositely arranged leaves are linear or lance-shaped, the ones higher on the plant clasping the stem. The flower cluster produces several hairless tubular flowers in ...
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145
Lotus crassifolius is a species of trefoil, a legume, known by the common names big deervetch and broad-leafed lotus. It is a long-lived, somewhat bushy plant which bears long straight stems with evenly spaced oval-shaped leaves. It produces thick bunches of yellow or pink-and-yellow pea flowers and brownish pea pods containing speckled red or brown peas. This legume is native to the western United States. One very rare variety of this plant is found only on Otay Mountain in southern San Diego C...
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146
Sierra Gooseberry (Ribes roezlii) is a native shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is moderately fast growing and long-lived. It grows in a semi-upright form to a height of 5 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are white and striking, and bloom in the late spring. Leaves are dark green and deciduous. It tends to grow at elevations from 0-9200 feet.


147
Western Dogwood (Cornus sericea ssp. occidentalis) is a native shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is moderately fast growing and long-lived. It grows in a semi-upright form to a height of 16 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are white and striking, and bloom in the summer. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in moist places, at elevations from 0-8000 feet.


148
The daisylike plant Helenium bigelovii is known as Bigelow's sneezeweed. It is a plant of meadows and marshes that bears flowers that are usually bright yellow in color. It grows in moist areas. It is found at moderate elevation in the foothills and low mountains of California. Cultivars are raised as ornamentals.


149
California Fuchsia (Epilobium canum ssp. latifolium) is a native perennial herb that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in dry slopes and ridges, at elevations from 1600-9800 feet.


150
Mountain Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) is a common native shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is slow growing and long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 7 feet, with active growth during the spring, summer, fall. Leaves are gray-green and deciduous. It tends to grow in dry valleys and slopes, at elevations from 5900-9800 feet.


151
Thalictrum polycarpum is a native perennial herb that grows in Northern, Southern and Central California, primarily in the South Coast and Channel Islands regions. It tends to grow in moist places, at elevations from 0-10500 feet.


152
Bog Rush (Juncus effusus var. pacificus) is a native grass that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in wet places, at elevations from - feet.


153
Potentilla gracilis, known as Slender Cinquefoil, or Graceful Cinquefoil is a species of cinquefoil. Named varieties are:


154
Sticky Monkeyflower is a native shrub that grows in southern and central California. It tends to grow at elevations from 0-7500 feet. Has yellow to orange flowers.


155
Poa secunda (variously known by the common names of Sandberg bluegrass, alkali bluegrass, big bluegrass, Canby's bluegrass, Nevada bluegrass, one-sided bluegrass, Pacific bluegrass, pine blugrass, slender bluegrass, wild bluegrass, and curly bluegrass. ) is a widespread species of grass native to North and South America. It is highly resistant to drought conditions, and provides excellent fodder; and has also been used in controlling soil erosion, and as revegetator, often after forest fires. Cu...
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156
Salix scouleriana, or Scouler's Willow, is a species of willow native to western North America. Other names occasionally used include fire willow, Nuttall willow, mountain willow, and black willow. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree, depending on the environment, usually with multiple stems that reach 2 to 7 meter in height in dry, cold, high elevation, and other difficult environments, and 10 to 20 meter in favorable sites. The stems are straight and support few branches generally resulting...
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157
Tsuga mertensiana (Mountain Hemlock) is a species of hemlock native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and its southeastern limit in northern Tulare County, California. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 20-40 meter tall, exceptionally 59 meter, and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 meter. The bark is thin and square-cracked or furrowed, and gray in color. The crown is a neat slender conic shape in young trees with a ti...
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158
Dasiphora fruticosa (Shrubby Cinquefoil; syn. Potentilla fruticosa L., Pentaphylloides fruticosa (L.) O.Schwarz) is a shrub in the family Rosaceae, native to the cool temperate to subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, often growing at high altitudes in mountains. It is a deciduous, much branched flowering shrub growing to 0.1-1 meter tall, rarely up to 1.5 meter. The habit is variably upright to sprawling or prostrate, but stems are often ascending especially those stems with many long ...
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159
Asclepias cordifolia is a species of milkweed commonly called Heart-leaf milkweed or Purple milkweed (not to be confused with Asclepias purpurascens, also commonly called Purple milkweed). It is native to the western United States (California, Nevada, Oregon), growing between 50-2000 meter elevation in the northern Sierra and Cascade ranges. Heart-leaf milkweed was valued by the Native American Miwok for its stems, which they dried and processed into cordage (string and rope). Monarch butterfly ...
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160
Hordeum jubatum (Foxtail barley) is a perennials plant species in the grass family Poaceae. It occurs wild mainly in northern North America and adjacent northeastern Siberia. However, as it escaped often from gardens it can be found world-wide in areas with temperate to warm climates, and is considered a weed in many countries. The species is a polyploid and originated via hybridization of an East Asian Hordeum species with a close but extinct relative of Californian H. brachyantherum. It is gro...
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161
Ceanothus lemmonii is a species of shrub in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae known by the common name Lemmon's ceanothus. It is endemic to California, where it grows on the wooded slopes of the Inner North Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada foothills to the west and east, respectively, of the Sacramento Valley. This is a spreading shrub approaching a meter in height and slightly more in width. The woody parts are gray when aged and new twigs are green, hairy, and sometimes hairy. The evergreen le...
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162
Lilium washingtonianum is a ]] native to the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada of western North America. It is also known as the ashington Lily,' Shasta Lily, or Mt. Hood Lily. It is named after Martha Washington and not the state of Washington; in fact, as the northern range of the plant is near Mount Hood in Oregon, it does not naturally occur in the state of Washington. Its range is limited to the states of California and Oregon. It grows up to 2 meter tall, and bears large fragrant white or p...
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163
Ribes divaricatum is a species of currant known by several common names, including spreading gooseberry, coast black gooseberry, and wild gooseberry. It is native to the forests, woodlands, and coastal scrub of western North America from British Columbia to California. It is a shrub sometimes reaching 3 meters in height with woody branches with one to three thick brown thorns at leaf nodes. The leaves are generally palmate in shape and edged with teeth. The blades are up to 6 centimeters long an...
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164
Layia glandulosa is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common names whitedaisy tidytips and white layia. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Baja California to Utah, where it is common in a number of habitat types. This is an annual herb producing an erect stem to a maximum height just over half a meter. The stem and foliage are dotted with dark hairy hairs and the plant is sometimes scented. The thin leaves are linear to oval-shaped, with th...
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165
Equisetum arvense, commonly known as the Field Horsetail or Common Horsetail, is a rather bushy perennial with a rhizomatous stem formation native to the northern hemisphere. These horsetails may have sterile or fertile stems. Sterile stems start to grow after the fertile stems have wilted. The sterile stems tend to be much taller and bushier, with the jointed segments being around one inch long with a diameter of about 1/20th of an inch. These segments contain one set of whorled, slender, erect...
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166
Elymus elymoides is a species of wild rye known by the common name squirreltail. This grass is native to most of North America west of the Mississippi River. It occurs in a number of ecosystems, from alpine forest to desert sage scrub to valley grassland. It is a perennial bunch grass growing to around half a meter in height. Its erect solid stems have flat or rolled leaf blades. The flower cluster is up to 15 centimeters long and somewhat stiff and erect, with spikelets one or two centimeters l...
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167
Mentzelia laevicaulis is a showy wildflower native to western North America. In California it is found in most counties throughout the state. Its common names include Giant Blazing Star and Smoothstem Blazing Star. It grows a weedy-looking, branched stem which may reach a meter in height. The whitish-green stem and its lateral branches bear the occasional triangular sawtoothed leaf. At the tip of each branch blooms a spectacular yellow flower. The star-shaped flower has five narrow, pointed peta...
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168
Allium platycaule is a species of wild onion known by the common name broadstemmed onion or flat-stem onion. It is native to northeastern California and nearby parts of Oregon and Nevada where it is found on slopes of some elevation. This onion grows from a gray bulb two to three centimeters wide and has a flattened stem which may bulge in the middle and narrow to thin wings along the sides. The long, flat leaves are sickle-shaped. Atop the stem is an flower cluster which may have as many as 90 ...
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169
Vicia americana is a species of legume in the vetch genus known by the common names American vetch and purple vetch. It includes a subspecies known as mat vetch. It is a climbing perennial forb that grows from both taproot and rhizome. The leaves are each made up of oblong leaflets and have tendrils for climbing. It bears showy pea-like flowers in shades of lavender and fuchsia. The fruit is a hairless pod about 3 centimeters long that contains usually two light brown peas. American vetch is wid...
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170
Maianthemum racemosum (Treacleberry, False Solomon's Seal, Solomon's plume or False Spikenard; syn. Smilacina racemosa) is a species of flowering plant in the family Ruscaceae, native to North America. It is a woodland herbaceous perennial plant growing to 50-90 centimeter tall, with alternate, oblong-lance-shaped leaves 7-15 centimeter long and 3-6 centimeter broad. The flowers are produced on a 10-15 centimeter panicle, each flower with six white petals 3-6 millimeter long blooming in late sp...
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171
Mimulus primuloides is a species of monkeyflower known by the common name primrose monkeyflower. It is native to the western United States, where it grows in wet habitat in mountains and plateau areas, such as streambanks. It is a perennial herb growing in low patches or mosslike mats and spreading via rhizome and stolon. The stem is no more than about 12 centimeters long. The oppositely arranged leaves are variable in shape, variable in color from green to purple-green, shaggy-hairy to hairless...
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172
Perideridia bolanderi is a species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by the common name Bolander's yampah. It is native to the western United States, where it grows in many types of habitat. It is a perennial herb which may approach one meter in maximum height, its slender, erect stem growing from tubers measuring up to 7 centimeters long. Leaves near the base of the plant have blades up to 20 centimeters long which are divided into many subdivided lobes of various sizes and shapes; ...
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173
Elymus californicus is a species of wild rye known by the common name California bottlebrush grass. This grass is endemic to California where it is an uncommon species known from a few counties in the San Francisco Bay Area. It grows between one and two meters in height. The tall, erect stem is nearly naked, bearing the occasional sheathing leaf with a blade 10 to 20 centimeters long. It bears an erect flower cluster which curves as it becomes heavier in grain. Each flower cluster is divided int...
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174
Huckleberry Oak (Quercus vacciniifolia) is a native shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is slow growing and long-lived. It grows in a semi-upright form to a height of 1.3 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and bloom in the early spring. Leaves are medium green, and remain on the plant throughout the year. It tends to grow in steep slopes and ridges and , at elevations from 3000-10000 feet.


175
Amelanchier utahensis, the Utah serviceberry, is a shrub native to western North America. This serviceberry grows in varied habitats, from scrubby open slopes to woodlands and forests. It is a spreading plant, reaching a maximum of 5 meter in height. It is deciduous, bearing rounded or spade-shaped often toothed green leaves and losing them at the end of the season. In April and May the shrub blooms in short flower clusters of white flowers, each with five widely-spaced narrow petals. The fruits...
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176
Agastache urticifolia is a species of flowering plant in the mint family known by the common name nettle-leaf giant hyssop. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California to Colorado, where it grows in many habitat types. This is an aromatic perennial herb growing an erect stem with widely spaced leaves, each lance-shaped to nearly triangular and toothed. The leaves are up to 8 centimeters long and 7 wide. The flower cluster is a dense spike of many flowers. Each flowe...
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177
Agoseris grandiflora is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common names bigflower agoseris and grassland agoseris. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California to Utah, where it grows in many habitat types. This is a perennial herb producing a basal patch of leaves of various shapes reaching maximum lengths of 50 centimeters. There is usually no stem, but there is sometimes a rudimentary one. The upright part of the plant is actually the pe...
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178
Cornus sessilis is a species of dogwood known by the common names blackfruit cornel or blackfruit dogwood and miner's dogwood. This is a shrub or small tree which is endemic to northern California, where it grows along streambanks in the Cascades, Sierra Nevada, and the coastal mountain ranges. It is a tree of the understory in its native range. This dogwood may approach five meters in height at maximum. It is deciduous, bearing deeply-veined oval green leaves in season which turn red before fal...
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179
Lupinus albicaulis is a species of lupine known by the common name sickle-keel lupine. It is native to the western United States from Washington to California, where it grows mostly in mountain habitat. It is a hairy, erect perennial herb often exceeding a meter in height. Each palmate leaf is made up of 5 to 10 leaflets each up to 7 centimeters long. The flower cluster is up to 44 centimeters long, bearing whorls of flowers each 1 to 1.6 centimeters long. The flower is purple to yellowish or wh...
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180
Eriogonum wrightii is a species of wild buckwheat known by the common names bastardsage and Wright's buckwheat. It is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, where it grows in many plant communities in rocky habitats from mountains to deserts. It is quite variable in appearance; it may be a small perennial herb 10 centimeters tall or a bushy shrub over a meter wide. There are several varieties as well. In general it has basal leaves as well as a few leaves along the ste...
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181
Juncus occidentalis is a species of rush known by the common name western rush. It is native to the western United States, where it grows in wet areas in many types of habitat. This is a bunching perennial herb with thin, stiff stems reaching maximum heights between 30 and 60 centimeters. The wispy leaves grow from the base of the stem and may approach half the stem's length. The flower cluster holds loose bundles of individual flowers and there is usually one long, leaflike leaf extending far p...
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182
Adiantum aleuticum (western maidenhair fern) is a species of fern in the genus Adiantum, native mainly to western North America from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, south to Chihuahua, and also locally in northeastern North America from Newfoundland south to Maryland. The fronds grow to 15-110 centimeter high, and are fan-shaped, light to medium green with dark brown to black stems. It prefers fertile, moist soil in rock crevices near streams, from sea level in the north of its range, up to 3,2...
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183
Festuca occidentalis is a species of grass known by the common name western fescue. It is native to much of the northern half of North America and is most widely distributed in the west. It is most often found in forest and woodland habitat. This fescue is a densely or loosely clumping grass with very thin stems reaching maximum heights of around one meter. The soft leaves reach up to about 25 meters in length and are somewhat hairlike. The flower cluster has one or two very thin branches bearin...
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184
Barbarea orthoceras is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by the common name American yellowrocket. It is native to North America, including much of Canada and the western United States, as well as parts of Asia. It grows in moist areas such as meadows and riverbanks, particularly in the drier parts of it's range. This is a perennial herb producing a stiff, branching stem to heights between 10 and 60 centimeters. The leaves are a few centimeters long and generally oval in s...
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185
Eriogonum ursinum is a species of wild buckwheat known by the common names Bear Valley buckwheat and talus buckwheat. It is endemic to northern California where it is found on mountains from the northern Sierra Nevada to the southern Klamath Mountains. This is an uncommon perennial herb growing mats of leaves from a woody caudex, spreading to 60 centimeters wide at the base and growing erect flower clusters up to 40 centimeters high. The leaves are pale green to yellowish, woolly, and up to abou...
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186
Luzula comosa is a species of flowering plant in the rush family known by the common name Pacific woodrush. It is native to western North America from Alaska to California to Colorado, where it can be found in moist spots in forests and meadows and many other types of habitat. It is a perennial herb quite variable in appearance, often forming small, narrow grasslike tufts. The erect flower cluster is tipped with a series of clustered spikelike flowers. The dark brown perianth parts open to revea...
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187
Artemisia arbuscula is a species of sagebrush known by the common names little sagebrush, low sagebrush, or black sagebrush. It is native to the western United States from Washington to California to Colorado, where it grows in open, exposed habitat on dry, sterile soils high in rock and clay content. This is a gray-green to gray shrub forming mounds generally no higher than 30 centimeters. Its many branches are covered in hairy leaves each less than a centimeter long. The flower cluster is a s...
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188
Ericameria cuneata is a species of flowering shrub in the daisy family known by the common name cliff goldenbush. This plant is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, where it grows on cliffs, mountainsides, and rocky hillsides. It is a small, hairy shrub reaching anywhere from ten centimeters to nearly a meter in height. Its wavy-edged leaves are rounded and oval-shaped, often with visible resin glands, and up to 2 and a half centimeters long. Atop each of the many erect ...
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189
Equisetum laevigatum is a species of horsetail known by the common names smooth scouring rush and smooth horsetail. This plant is native to much of North America except for northern Canada and southern Mexico. It is usually found in moist areas in sandy and gravelly substrates. It may be annual or perennial. It grows narrow green stems sometimes reaching heights exceeding 1.5 meters. The leaves at the nodes are small, scale-like brownish sheaths and there are occasionally small, spindly branches...
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190
Chamisso Arnica (Arnica chamissonis) is a native perennial herb that grows in Northern, Southern and Central California, primarily in the Warner Mountains, the White and Inyo Mountains and Klamath Mountain Range regions. It is moderately fast growing and short-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 2.5 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and striking, and bloom in the early summer. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in m...
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191
Mountain Alder (Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia) is a native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 20 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are purple and bloom in the early spring. Leaves are dark green and deciduous. It tends to grow in wet places, at elevations from 4500-8000 feet.


192
Panicled Bulrush (Scirpus microcarpus) is a native grass that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is fast growing and long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 5.5 feet, with active growth during the spring, summer, fall. Flowers are white and bloom in the late spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in marshes, at elevations from 0-9000 feet.


193
Cows Clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) is a native perennial herb that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is moderately fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in a flat form to a height of 3.5 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are red and striking, and bloom in the late spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in open and moist or marshy places, at elevations from 0-10000 feet.


194
Oregon Checker Mallow (Sidalcea oregana) is a native perennial herb that grows in Northern, Southern and Central California, primarily in the High Sierra Nevada region. It is moderately fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 4.5 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are purple and striking, and bloom in the late spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in wet meadows and marshes, at elevations from ...
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195
The Virginia Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), is one of two species of strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated Garden Strawberry. Its natural range is confined to North America, in the United States (including Alaska) and Canada, although a popular variety called "Little Scarlet" grows only in Great Britain, having been imported from the United States in the early 1900s. It is also sometimes called "Wild Strawberry", though this can also refer to several other species...
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196
Erigeron divergens is a flowering plant in the daisy family. Common names include spreading fleabane and branching fleabane. It bears small, attractive daisylike flowers with up to 150 ray flowers, giving the round flowerhead a frilly look. The flowers may be white or a light shade of purple. The plump yellow or greenish-yellow centers are made up of tiny disk flowers. It is a plant of many habitats from desert to low-elevation mountains in western North America, especially the American southwes...
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197
Viola glabella, also known as Stream Violet or Pioneer Violet, occurs along streams or in moist woods in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. Its petals are yellow on both sides, with the exception of dark purple nectar guides on the front of the lower three petals. The flowers arise from the same stems as the leaves; the plant is deciduous and dies back completely to its roots in the autumn.


198
Muhlenbergia montana is a species of grass known by the common name mountain muhly. It is native to North and Central America, where it is found throughout the western United States, Mexico, and Guatemala. It can be found in several types of habitat, including grassland, rocky outcrops, and open areas. It is a perennial grass forming tufts of stems 10 to 40 centimeters tall. The flower cluster is an open array of spreading or upright branches bearing small, awned spikelets.


199
Glyceria grandis is a species of mannagrass known by the common name American mannagrass. It is native to Canada and the United States, where it is widespread in distribution. It is most commonly found in wet areas such as riverbanks and ponds. This is a rhizomatous perennial grass bearing thin stems which approach two meters in maximum height. The sturdy leaves each have a prominent central vein. The tops of the stems are occupied with spreading, multibranched flower clusters bearing many small...
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200
Vaccinium cespitosum, (also, caespitosum), the dwarf bilberry, is a species of flowering shrub in the genus which includes blueberries and cranberries. It is a low-lying plant rarely reaching half a meter in height which forms a carpetlike stand in rocky mountainous meadows. It is found across Canada and into the northern half of the United States. The foliage is reddish-green to green and the flowers are tiny urn-shaped light pink cups less than a centimeter wide. The fruits are edible blue bil...
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