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566 shade plants native to California


101
Neviusia cliftonii is a rare species of shrub in the rose family which is known by the common name Shasta snow-wreath. It is endemic to Shasta County, California, where it is known from fewer than 20 occurrences in the mountains around Lake Shasta. The shrub was not known to science until 1992, when it was discovered east of Redding, California, and described as a new species in Neviusia, previously a monotypic genus. This is an erect deciduous shrub reaching 2.5 meters in maximum height. The a...
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102
Horkelia clevelandii is a species of flowering plant in the rose family known by the common name Cleveland's horkelia. It is native to the Peninsular Ranges of southern California and northern Baja California. This is a perennial herb forming clumps of long, fernlike leaves and erect stems. The leaves are up to 18 centimeters long and are made up of triangular to rounded leaflets, each toothed or lobed and covered in thin hairs. The narrow stems reach 10 to 50 centimeters in height and bear flow...
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103
Adelinia grandis (formerly Cynoglossum grande) is a species of flowering plant in the borage family known by the common name Pacific hound's tongue. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California, where it grows in shady areas in woodland and chaparral. On the forest floor of California oak woodlands typical plant associates are Calochortus luteus, Delphinium variegatum and Calochortus amabilis.It is a perennial herb producing an erect stem 30 to 90 centimeters tall fr...
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104
Elymus californicus is a species of wild rye known by the common name California bottlebrush grass. This grass is endemic to California where it is an uncommon species known from a few counties in the San Francisco Bay Area. It grows between one and two meters in height. The tall, erect stem is nearly naked, bearing the occasional sheathing leaf with a blade 10 to 20 centimeters long. It bears an erect flower cluster which curves as it becomes heavier in grain. Each flower cluster is divided int...
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105
Agastache urticifolia is a species of flowering plant in the mint family known by the common name nettle-leaf giant hyssop. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California to Colorado, where it grows in many habitat types. This is an aromatic perennial herb growing an erect stem with widely spaced leaves, each lance-shaped to nearly triangular and toothed. The leaves are up to 8 centimeters long and 7 wide. The flower cluster is a dense spike of many flowers. Each flowe...
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106
Prosartes smithii, formerly Disporum smithii, is a species of flowering plant in the Colchicaceae known by the common name largeflower fairybells. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to northern California, where it grows in shady forest and woodland, including forests. It is an erect, branching perennial herb growing up to a meter tall. Its narrow, fuzzy stems bear wide, oval-shaped, pointed leaves up to 12 centimeters long and mostly hairless. The flower cluster produce...
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107
Fritillaria recurva, the Scarlet Fritillary, is a herb in the Liliaceae family. It is native to southwest Oregon from Douglas County south into California where it grows in the Klamath Mountains, Northern Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, and Sierra Nevada. It grows in dry, open woodlands and chaparral from 300 to 2200 meters, and it blooms in spring from February to July. Throughout its range it is distinguishable from other Fritillaria species by its scarlet red color, checkered with yellow on the ...
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108
Clintonia andrewsiana is a species of flowering plant in the lily family known by the common names Andrews clintonia and red clintonia. It is native to Oregon and northern California, where it grows in shady, moist areas of the coastal forests. It is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing 30 to 80 centimeters tall. Around the base of the plant are 5 or 6 wide, hairy, oval-shaped green leaves up to 30 centimeters long and 12 broad. The tall, erect flower cluster produces one or more umbels of hairy...
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109
Erythronium oregonum is a species of flowering plant in the lily family which is known by the common name giant white fawn lily. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California, where it grows in coastal mountain ranges. This wildflower grows from a bulb 3 to 5 centimeters wide and produces wide green leaves up to 22 centimeters long and often mottled with brown and white. Thin naked stalks up to about 40 centimeters in height each bear one to three flowers. Each flowe...
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110
Asarum hartwegii is a species of wild ginger known by the common name Hartweg's wild ginger. It is endemic to California; It grows in forest habitat. This is a perennial herb growing from a ginger-scented rhizome which extends vertically deep into the ground. It forms a clump of elaborately white-veined leaves which are heart-shaped to round in shape and coated in curved hairs. Each is borne on a long petiole up to 21 centimeters long. It bears a solitary flower near the ground on a short pedun...
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111
Adiantum aleuticum (western maidenhair fern) is a species of fern in the genus Adiantum, native mainly to western North America from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, south to Chihuahua, and also locally in northeastern North America from Newfoundland south to Maryland. The fronds grow to 15-110 centimeter high, and are fan-shaped, light to medium green with dark brown to black stems. It prefers fertile, moist soil in rock crevices near streams, from sea level in the north of its range, up to 3,2...
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112
Mitella ovalis is a species of flowering plant in the saxifrage family known by the common names coastal miterwort and oval-leaf miterwort. It is native to western North America from southwestern British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, to northern California as far south as Marin County. It grows in moist, shady habitat, such as coastal forests and streambanks. It is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing up to about 35 or 40 centimeters tall. The leaves occur around the base of the stem. Th...
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113
Heuchera pilosissima is a species of flowering plant in the saxifrage family known by the common name seaside alumroot and Parish's alumroot. It is endemic to the northern two thirds of the California coastline, where it grows on coastal bluffs and in nearby forests. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing lobed oval-shaped leaves 4 to 9 centimeters wide, each on a long petiole. The erect flower cluster reaches over half a meter in maximum height and is covered in hairy hairs. It bears de...
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114
Pellaea andromedifolia is a species of cliff brake fern known by the common name coffee fern. It is native to California in the United States and Baja California in Mexico. This plant does not have the immediately recognizable sharply pointed leaflets on its fronds that many other ferns have. Its leaves bear rounded or oval-shaped segments widely spaced along the rachis. Each segment may curl under along its edges. The leaves are green when new, then turn red, purplish, or brown. Some individua...
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115
Iris tenax is a species of Iris native to southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. It is known as the Tough-leaved Iris or Oregon Iris. It occurs along roadsides and in grasslands and forest openings at low to middle elevations. One subspecies is also known from northern California. Like most irises, it has large and showy flowers. The flowers bloom in mid to late spring and are usually lavender-blue to purple, but blooms in white, yellow, pink, and orchid shades are known to sometimes ...
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116
Dudleya greenei is a rare succulent plant known by the common name Greene's liveforever, or Greene's dudleya. It is endemic to the Channel Islands of California, where it grows along the cliffs of four of the eight islands. It grows from a small, thick caudex a few centimeters wide and produces rosettes of fleshy, pointed leaves up to 11 centimeters long. The flower cluster is borne on an erect peduncle up to 40 centimeters tall. The peduncle and foliage are variably green and pink. The flower c...
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117
Luzula comosa is a species of flowering plant in the rush family known by the common name Pacific woodrush. It is native to western North America from Alaska to California to Colorado, where it can be found in moist spots in forests and meadows and many other types of habitat. It is a perennial herb quite variable in appearance, often forming small, narrow grasslike tufts. The erect flower cluster is tipped with a series of clustered spikelike flowers. The dark brown perianth parts open to revea...
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118
Myropteris covillei is a species of lip fern known by the common name Coville's lip fern. This plant is native to the southwestern United States and Baja California, where it grows in rocky crevices in the mountains and foothills. This fern has green leaves which may be up to 4-pinnate, that is, made up of leaflets that subdivide 3 times, such that the leaflets are layered with overlapping rounded segments. The leaves have a bumpy, cobbled look. The undersides of the leaves have scales which are...
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119
Equisetum laevigatum is a species of horsetail known by the common names smooth scouring rush and smooth horsetail. This plant is native to much of North America except for northern Canada and southern Mexico. It is usually found in moist areas in sandy and gravelly substrates. It may be annual or perennial. It grows narrow green stems sometimes reaching heights exceeding 1.5 meters. The leaves at the nodes are small, scale-like brownish sheaths and there are occasionally small, spindly branches...
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120
Dryopteris arguta is a species of wood fern known by the common name Coastal woodfern. It is native to the west coast of North America, where it grows in oak woodlands and shady low elevation slopes. The species is somewhat variable in appearance. Leaflets sometimes turn at an angle from the leaf, giving it a ruffled or lacy look, and the toothed leaflets may have bristles at their tips. According to C. Michael Hogan, The thin concave indusia are quite closely spaced and almost entirely cover t...
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121
Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) is a native tree that grows in Central and Northern California, primarily in the North Coast, the Klamath Mountain Range and North Coast Range regions. It is slow growing and long-lived. It grows in a cone-shaped form to a height of 170 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Leaves are medium green, and remain on the plant throughout the year. It tends to grow in moist places, at elevations from 0-2300 feet.


122
Chamisso Arnica (Arnica chamissonis) is a native perennial herb that grows in Northern, Southern and Central California, primarily in the Warner Mountains, the White and Inyo Mountains and Klamath Mountain Range regions. It is moderately fast growing and short-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 2.5 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and striking, and bloom in the early summer. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in m...
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123
Angelica tomentosa is a species of angelica known as woolly angelica. It is native to the coastal mountain ranges of California and southern Oregon, where it grows in wooded areas. This is a taprooted perennial herb producing an erect, hollow stem to heights generally between 1 and 2 meters. The leaves may be nearly a meter long but are actually made up of many leaflike leaflets, each up to 12 centimeters long and lance-shaped to oval and sometimes toothed. The flower cluster is a compound umbel...
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124
Lomatium californicum is a species of plant related to the carrot and the parsnip which is known by the common names California rock parsnip, celery weed, and California lomatium. It has blue-green leaves which resemble those of celery in both appearance and taste, and broad umbels of yellow flowers. Various parts of the plant have historically had medicinal uses among Native American groups. This plant is native to California and Oregon, where it is found in low elevation mountains and hills.


125
Red Huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) is a native shrub that grows in central and northern California. It is slow growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 12 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are white and bloom in the spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in open places, at elevations from 0-7000 feet.


126
Heuchera caespitosa is a species of flowering plant in the saxifrage family known by the common name urn-flowered alumroot. It is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California, where it grows on the rocky slopes. While uncommon in the wild, this species is cultivated as an attractive garden flower. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb with multi-lobed leaves. It produces an erect, drooping flower cluster which bears bright pink or magenta bell-shaped flowers.


127
Angelica lucida is a species of angelica known by the common names seacoast angelica and sea-watch. It is also one of many species in the celery family which are casually called wild celery. This plant is generally similar in appearance to other angelicas, with tall, dense umbels of yellowish-white flowers. As its common names suggest, this plant is found most often along the coastline. Its distribution includes the east and west coasts of North America, plus parts of east Asia. It is considered...
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128
Vaccinium cespitosum, (also, caespitosum), the dwarf bilberry, is a species of flowering shrub in the genus which includes blueberries and cranberries. It is a low-lying plant rarely reaching half a meter in height which forms a carpetlike stand in rocky mountainous meadows. It is found across Canada and into the northern half of the United States. The foliage is reddish-green to green and the flowers are tiny urn-shaped light pink cups less than a centimeter wide. The fruits are edible blue bil...
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129
Asarum lemmonii is a species of wild ginger which is endemic to California. It is known by the common name Lemmon's wild ginger. It is a spreading plant which forms dense green mats on the ground. The leaves are rich green and heart-shaped. It bears a small cup-shaped flower which is red externally and white inside. The plant grows in moist areas in the High Sierra.


130
Solanum wallacei, also known as Wallace's nightshade, Catalina nightshade, Northern island nightshade, or Wild Tomato, is a perennial plant that produces purple flowers, but otherwise resembles a tomato plant. The foliage and purple-black berries are poisonous. This rare plant is native to canyons and hillsides on Santa Catalina and Guadalupe Islands. It blooms in April and May.


131
Geum macrophyllum, commonly known as largeleaf avens or large-leaved avens is a flowering plant found from the Arctic south to the northern U. S. states, and in the Rocky Mountains and west to the Sierra Nevada in California and as far south as Northwestern Mexico. Media related to Geum macrophyllum at Wikimedia Commons


132
The annual flowering plant Gilia achilleifolia is known commonly as California gilia, California gily-flower , and blue gilia. It is native to California but grows in other areas of North America where it has been introduced. The plant is erect with long stems that bear bunches of funnel-shaped lavender flowers. It is a member of the phlox family.


133
Polygonum paronychia is a species of flowering plant in the knotweed family known by the common names dune knotweed, black knotweed, and beach knotweed. It is native to the coastline of western North America from British Columbia to California, where it grows in sandy coastal habitat such as beaches, dunes, and scrub. Polygonum paronychia is a small prostrate or upright shrub producing multibranched brown stems up to a meter (40 inches) long. The stems may root at nodes that come in contact with...
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134
Argentinian Biddy Biddy (Acaena pinnatifida) is a native perennial herb that grows in Central California, primarily in the North Coast and Central Coast regions. It tends to grow in grassy places and open rocky slopes, at elevations from 0-500 feet.


135
Trillium ovatum, the Pacific trillium, western trillium, western wakerobin, or western white trillium, is a member of the Trilliaceae family, or sometimes included within the Liliaceae or Melanthiaceae. It occurs in parts of the western United States and western Canada, usually in rich forest. In the northern part of its range, which includes southern British Columbia, extreme southwestern Alberta, Washington, Oregon and east to Montana, Wyoming and northern Colorado, it often grows under Dougla...
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136
Round Fruit Sedge (Carex globosa) is a native grass that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in well drained soils in wooded places, at elevations from 0-4300 feet.


137
Scoliopus bigelovii is a species of flowering plant in the lily family known by several common names, including California fetid adderstongue, Bigelow's adderstongue, slinkpod, and brownies. It is native to California, where it is known from San Luis Obispo County, parts of the San Francisco Bay Area and North Coast Ranges. It has also been collected just over the border in Oregon. It occurs in old-growth forest in the understory of redwoods. It grows in mossy, moist places, often in shade. This...
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138
Angelica californica is a species of angelica known as California angelica. It is found in northern California and occasionally in southern Oregon. Its habitats are the dry, low-elevation slopes of the foothills and coast ranges. It bears umbels of white angelica flowers.


139
Foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata) is a uncommon native perennial herb that grows in central and northern California. It tends to grow in moist banks, at elevations from 0-8200 feet.


140
Viola sempervirens, known by the common names redwood violet and evergreen violet, is a species in the genus Viola. It is native to the West Coast of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, and grows in closed-cone pine forest, California mixed evergreen forest, redwood forest, and Douglas fir forest communities. It has leathery purple-spotted green leaves and bright yellow flowers. It blooms in winter and spring. Media related to Viola sempervirens at Wikimedia Commons


141
Viburnum ellipticum, the common viburnum or oval-leaved viburnum, is a species of shrub in family Adoxaceae. It is native to the western United States from Washington to central California, where it occurs in forests and mountain chaparral habitat. The shrub has deciduous leaves with oval or rounded blades 2 to 6 centimeters long. The leaf blade usually has three main longitudinal veins and a shallowly toothed edge. The inflorescence is a flat-topped cyme of many white flowers each 6 to 8 millim...
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142
Tiarella trifoliata, commonly called threeleaf foamflower, laceflower, or sugar-scoop, is a dicot in the family Saxifragaceae. It is native to the low to moderate elevation moist forests of western North America, from northern California to Montana and western Canada. Tiarella trifoliata is a perennial herb that grows in the late spring. The flowers are bell-shaped, white, solitary from an elongate, leafless panicle. The calyx lobes are 1. 5-2. 5 mm and petals are 3-4 mm. Basal leaves are 15-80 ...
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143
Vancouveria planipetala is a species of flowering plant in the barberry family known by the common names redwood inside-out flower and redwood ivy. It is native to southwestern Oregon and northern California, where it occurs in coastal mountain ranges. It grows in forests, especially redwood forests. It is a rhizomatous perennial herb with a short, mostly underground stem. It produces a patch of basal leaves which are each made up of round or heart-shaped leaflets borne on long, reddish petioles...
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144
Rosa pinetorum is an uncommon species of rose known by the common name pine rose. It is endemic to California, where it occurs in the coniferous forests of the Central Coast Ranges around Monterey Bay.


145
Ribes bracteosum, the stink currant, is a species of currant native to western coastal North America from southeastern Alaska to Mendocino County in California. Ribes bracteosum is a deciduous shrub, without thorns, growing to 3 m (10 feet) tall. The leaves are 5-20 cm (2-8 inches) across, palmately lobed with 5 or 7 lobes. The flowers are produced in spring after the leaves emerge, on racemes 15-30 cm (6-12 inches) long containing 20-40 flowers; each flower is 5-10 mm (2-4 inches) in diameter, ...
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146
Monardella sheltonii is a species of flowering plant in the mint family known by the common name Shelton's monardella. It is native to the mountains of northern California and southern Oregon, including the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada, where it grows in chaparral, forest, and other habitat, often on serpentine soils. Monardella sheltonii is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing an erect stem lined with pairs of oppositely arranged lance-shaped leaves. The inflorescence is a head of seve...
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147
Lilium rubescens is an uncommon species of lily known by the common names lily and chaparral lily. It is endemic to California, where it is known from the Coast Ranges from Del Norte to Santa Cruz Counties. As its names suggest, it is a member of the flora in forest understory and chaparral habitat types. This is a perennial herb growing a waxy, erect stem up to two meters in height. It originates from a scaly, oval-shaped bulb up to about 9 centimeters long. The oval leaves are located in sever...
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148
Garrya fremontii is a species of flowering shrub known by several common names, including California fever bush, bearbrush, and Frmont's silktassel. Both the latter name, and the plant's specific epithet are derived from John C. Frmont G. fremontii is native to the west coast of the United States from Washington to California. It can be found in a number of habitats, from mountain forest to woodlands and chaparral canyons and slopes. This is a shrub reaching a maximum height of three to four me...
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149
Antirrhinum coulterianum (syn. Sairocarpus coulterianus) is a species of New World snapdragon known by the common name Coulter's snapdragon. It is native to southern California and Baja California, where it grows in desert shrublands and in the coastal hills and mountains, especially in areas that have recently burned. This is an annual herb producing an erect stem which often clings to objects or other plants for support. It is mostly hairless, except for the flower cluster at the top, which c...
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150
Polypodium glycyrrhiza (many-footed fern, sweet root), commonly known as licorice fern, is an evergreen fern native to western North America. They thrive in a humid climate, prevailing in areas with cool and moist summers and warm and wet winters. Found at elevations <2000 feet It grows primarily in a narrow strip in southern Alaska, southwestern Yukon Territory, western British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, though two highly disjunct populations are known from Idaho and Arizona....
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151
Keckiella corymbosa (formerly Penstemon corymbosus) is a species of flowering shrub in the plantain family known by the common name penstemon, or keckiella. It is endemic to California, where it grows in the coastal mountain forests of the central and northern regions of the state. This is a narrow, erect keckiella, reaching up to about half a meter tall and less than a meter in width. Its spreading branches have oppositely-arranged pairs of narrowly oval-shaped leaves one to three centimeters l...
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152
Polemonium carneum is a plant native to the northwestern United States west of the Cascade Range in Washington south to the San Francisco Bay Area in California. Common names include royal Jacob's ladder, great polemonium, and salmon polemonium. It grows in the lowlands and in prairies to moderate elevations in the mountains, and inhabits woody thickets, open and moist forests, prairie edges, and roadsides. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing one or more stems decumbent in form or er...
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153
Calochortus amabilis is a species of flowering plant in the lily family which is known by the common name Diogenes' lantern. It is endemic to northern California, where it grows in the mountains north of the San Francisco Bay Area. In oak woodlands common understory plant associates are Calochortus luteus, Clarkia unguiculata and Delphinium variegatum. It is a common member of the scrub and woodland flora there. This is a perennial herb producing an upright, somewhat waxy branching stem to heigh...
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154
Collinsia tinctoria is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family known by the common names sticky Chinese houses and tincture plant. It is endemic to California, where it grows in the woodlands and forests of the mountain ranges of the central and northern regions of the state. It is an annual herb producing a sturdy erect stem up to about 60 centimeters tall. The oppositely arranged leaves are triangular lance-shaped, sometimes toothed, and hairy on the undersides. The flower cluster ...
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155
Polemonium occidentale is a species of flowering plant in the phlox family known by the common name western Jacob's-ladder. There are two subspecies. The common ssp. occidentale is native to western North America from British Columbia to Colorado to California, where it can be found in moist areas of many habitat types, including meadows and woodlands. There is also a rare subspecies, ssp. lacustre, which is known only from a total of three counties in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and is found only ...
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156
Anemone deltoidea is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common names Columbian windflower and western white anemone. It is native to the forests of the west coast of the United States. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing between 10 and 30 centimeters tall. There is usually a single basal leaf which is divided into three large toothed leaflets, each up to 6 centimeters long. There may be more leaves along the mostly naked stem which are similar in appearanc...
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157
Leptosiphon androsaceus (syn. Linanthus androsaceus) is a species of flowering plant in the phlox family known by the common name false babystars. It is native to California, where it grows wild in the chaparral, woodland, and other habitat in and around the San Francisco Bay Area and Coast Ranges to the north. It is also kept as an ornamental plant for its small, colorful blooms. This is an annual herb producing a hairy stem up to about 30 centimeters long, often growing erect. The oppositely a...
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158
Erythronium helenae is a species of flowering plant in the lily family which is known by the common names Pacific fawn lily and St. Helena fawn lily. It is endemic to the coastal mountains north of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. It is named for the local peak Mount Saint Helena. This wildflower grows from a bulb 3 to 5 centimeters wide and produces two wide leaves up to 20 centimeters long which are green mottled with brown or white. It produces erect stalks up to 30 centimeters tall...
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159
Fritillaria eastwoodiae, also known as Butte County Fritillary or Eastwood's Fritillary is a rare member of the Lily family (Liliaceae), endemic to the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada, and Cascade Mountains in California. It grows in dry open woodlands and chaparral from 500 to 1500 meters, in Shasta, Yuba, Tehama, Butte and El Dorado Counties. It occurs in similar habitat with F. affinis, F. micrantha, and F. recurva, and blooms from March through May. It can sometimes be found on serpe...
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160
Aquilegia pubescens is a species of columbine known by the common names Sierra Columbine and Coville's Columbine. It is sometimes called "yellow columbine", but this properly refers to A. flavescens. This wildflower is endemic to California, where it is a resident of the High Sierra. It is found in alpine and subalpine climates. This leafy columbine rarely reaches half a meter in height. The showy flowers are usually erect rather than drooping and are up to a centimeter wide at the mouth. The f...
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161
Erythronium citrinum, also known as citrus fawn lily or cream fawn lily, is a member of the lily family that is found in southwest Oregon and adjacent northwest California. The genus Erythronium, which can be found across northern North America, Europe and Asia, is most diverse in California, which is home to fifteen of about twenty-eight members of the genus. Its flowers are borne on stems that are six to eight inches tall. It has a pair of broad mottled leaves up to about six inches long. The...
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162
Petasites frigidus (Arctic Butterbur or Arctic Sweet Coltsfoot; syn. P. speciosa) is a species of Petasites native to Arctic to cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in northern Europe, northern Asia and northern North America. It is a herbaceous perennial plant producing flowering stems in early spring, and large leaves through the summer. The upright flowering stems are 10-20 centimeter tall, and bear only 5-12 flower clusters, yellowish-white to pink in colour. The leaves are rou...
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163
Phalaris californica is an uncommon species of grass known by the common name California canarygrass. It is native to the coastal hills and mountains of southern Oregon and northern and central California, where it grows mainly in moist areas, such as meadows. It is a perennial grass reaching maximum heights between one half and 1.5 meters. The flower cluster is up to 5 centimeters long and 3 wide, roughly oval, pointed at the tip and truncated at the base. The spikelets are hairy and as they ri...
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164
Erythronium californicum is a species of flowering plant in the lily family which is known by the common name California fawn lily. It is endemic to the coastal mountains of northern California. The plant grows from a bulb 3 to 6 centimeters wide and produces two basal leaves which are green and sometimes spotted with brown. The reddish-green stalks grow up to 30 centimeters tall and each bears one to three flowers. The flower has yellowish-white petals 2 to 4 centimeters long, sometimes with r...
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165
The western buttercup (ranunculus occidentalis) is a species of buttercup found in the western United States and Canada. The flower can be seen in open meadows, forests, and other generally flat areas up to an elevation of 2,200 meters (7,200 feet). Aleut Indians may have used protoanemonin, a substance produced when the plant is handled or damaged as a poison, while Shasta Indians coincided blooming R. occidentalis with salmon runs in the summer.


166
Sierra Fumewort (Corydalis caseana) is a uncommon native perennial herb that grows in Central and Northern California, primarily in the High Cascade Range, the High Sierra Nevada and Modoc Plateau regions. It is moderately fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 3 feet, with active growth during the spring. Flowers are white and striking, and bloom in the late spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in moist places, at eleva...
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167
Rupertia physodes is a species of legume known by the common names California tea and forest scurfpea. It is native to western North America. It is a small perennial bush with deep, woody roots. It bears dull green hairy, slightly hairy, tea-shaped leaves, bunches of light yellow tubular pea flowers, and tiny hairy orange pods containing reddish seeds.


168
Iris fernaldii is a species of iris endemic to California. It is found in the Coast Ranges surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area. Its common name is Fernald's iris. Its leaves are gray-green with pink, red, or purple coloring along their edges and bases. The gray-veined yellow flowers usually grow paired on a stem. Purple flowers occur rarely.


169
Viola beckwithii, known commonly as the Great Basin violet, Beckwith's violet, and sagebrush pansy, is a species of violet native to the western United States. It is an early-flowering plant of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) habitats in the Great Basin region. This is a perennial herb with several decumbent or erect stems growing from a caudex. The stems are up to about 22 centimeters long, often with much of their length underground. The fleshy compound leaves have dissected leaflets of varyi...
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170
Miner's Lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliata) is a common native annual herb that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in vernally moist places, at elevations from 0-6600 feet.


171
Stachys chamissonis is a species of flowering plant in the mint family known by the common name coastal hedgenettle. It is native to the west coast of North America, where it grows in moist coastal habitat from Alaska to central California. This mint produces an erect stem well over one meter in maximum height, and often over two meters. It is hairy, glandular, and aromatic. The oppositely arranged leaves have pointed, wavy-edged blades up to 18 centimeters long which are borne on petioles. The ...
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172
Viola bakeri is a species of violet known by the common name Baker's violet. It is native to the Western United States, from Washington and Oregon, to the mountains of northern Nevada, and in California to the southern High Sierra Nevada. The plant occurs in openings in coniferous forest habitats. Viola bakeri is an herb that grows from a woody taproot, reaching a maximum height of a few centimeters to around 30 centimetres (12 in). The leaves have lance-shaped blades up to 5 or 6 centimeters lo...
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173
Orleans Iris (Iris tenax ssp. klamathensis) is a rare native perennial herb that grows in Northern, Southern and Central California, primarily in the Klamath Mountain Range region. It tends to grow in mixedevergreen s, at elevations from 0-1600 feet.


174
Paxistima myrsinites (Oregon boxleaf, Oregon boxwood, mountain lover, box, or hedge, false box, myrtle box leaf; syn. Pachistima myrsinites) is a species of shrub in the bittersweet family. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to northern Mexico to the Rocky Mountains, where it grows in forests, often in the understory. It is a low prostrate or spreading evergreen shrub growing to a meter in maximum height. The stems have many four-angled branches lined with oppositely arr...
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175
Viola pinetorum is a species of violet known by the common names goosefoot violet, goosefoot yellow violet, gray-leaved violet, or mountain yellow violet. It is endemic to California, where it grows in mountain ranges throughout the state. It occurs in various types of mountain habitat, including forests and talus. This herb grows from a tough taproot and produces an erect or decumbent stem up to about 22 centimeters long. The leaves are linear to oval in shape with pointed tips and toothed edge...
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177
Pacific Bleeding Heart (Dicentra formosa ssp. formosa) is the more common subspecies of Dicentra formosa. It is a native perennial herb that grows in central and northern California. Leaves are finely divided and fernlike, growing from the base of the plant. Flowers are pink, red, or white and heart-shaped and bloom in clusters at the top of leafless, fleshy stems above the leaves from mid-spring to autumn, with peak flowering in spring. The four petals are attached at the base. The two outer pe...
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178
Coleogyne is a monotypic genus in the rose family containing the single species Coleogyne ramosissima, which is known by the common name blackbrush. This thorny, aromatic shrub is native to the deserts of the southwestern United States. It is a thickly branched thicket which may spread across the ground in clumps or grow erect to approach two meters in height. It is drought-deciduous, such that its branches are covered in clumps of fuzzy thick leaves until the hottest, driest parts of the desert...
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179
Linnaea borealis, commonly known as Twinflower (sometimes written twin flower) is a woodland subshrub, treated either in the family Caprifoliaceae, or sometimes in its own family Linnaeaceae. The stems are slender, hairy and prostrate, growing to 20-40 centimeter long, with opposite evergreen rounded oval leaves 3-10 millimeter long and 2-7 millimeter broad. The flowering stems curve erect, to 4-8 centimeter tall, leafless except at the base; the flowers are paired, pendulous, 7-12 millimeter lo...
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180
Lilium bolanderi is a species of lily known by the common name Bolander's lily. This is a perennial herb growing a waxy, erect stem that approaches a meter in height. It originates from a scaly, elongated bulb up to about 7 centimeters long. The wavy oval leaves are located in several whorls about the stem, each waxy green and up to 7 centimeters in length. The flower cluster bears up to 9 large, nodding lily flowers. The flower is bell-shaped with 6 red petals up to 5 centimeters long and marke...
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181
Lilium kelleyanum is a species of lily known by the common name Kelley's lily. It is endemic to the Sierra Nevada of California, where it grows in moist habitat in forests, such as streambanks. It is a perennial herb known to exceed two meters in height. It originates from a scaly, elongated bulb up to about 8 centimeters long. The oval leaves are located in several whorls about the stem, each up to 15 centimeters in length and drooping at the tip. The flower cluster bears up to 25 large, noddin...
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182
Menziesia ferruginea is a species of flowering plant in the heath family known by several common names, including rusty menziesia, false huckleberry, and mock azalea. It is native to northwestern North America from Alaska through the Pacific Northwest to Wyoming, where it is a member of the flora in mountain forests. It grows in the understory of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Pacific silver fir (A. amabilis), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and other c...
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183
Lilium kelloggii is a species of lily known by the common name Kellogg's lily. It is endemic to the Klamath Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon, where it grows in forests, including understory. It is a perennial herb known to exceed two meters in height. It originates from a scaly, elongated bulb up to about 7.5 centimeters long. The stem is ringed with dense whorls of up to 40 leaves, each leaf up to 16 centimeters in length. The flower cluster bears up to 27 large, showy, nodd...
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184
Equisetum telmateia (great horsetail or northern giant horsetail) is a species of Equisetum (horsetail) with an unusual distribution, with one subspecies native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, and a second subspecies native to western North America. The North American subspecies is often simply but ambiguously called "giant horsetail", but that name may just as well refer to the Latin American Equisetum giganteum and Equisetum myriochaetum. It is a herbaceous perennial plant, with...
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185
Hydrophyllum occidentale is a species of flowering plant in the waterleaf family known by the common name western waterleaf. It is native to the western United States from California to Idaho, where it grows in a variety of habitats from wet mountain meadows to dry chaparral slopes. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing a patch of leaves, most of which are made up of many pairs of oval-shaped, bluntly lobed green leaflets. These compound leaves may be up to 40 centimeters long. The plan...
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186
The Noble Fir (Abies procera) is a western North American fir, native to the Cascade Range and Coast Range mountains of extreme northwest California and western Oregon and Washington in the United States. It is a large evergreen tree typically up to 40-70 meter (130-230 feet) tall and 2 meter (6.5 feet) trunk diameter, rarely to 90 meter (295 feet) tall and 2.7 meter (8.9 feet) diameter, with a narrow conic crown. The bark on young trees is smooth, grey, and with resin blisters, becoming red-br...
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187
Caltha leptosepala (White Marsh Marigold, Twinflowered Marsh Marigold, or Broadleaved Marsh Marigold) is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family. It is native to western North America from Alaska to New Mexico, where it grows in wet mountain habitats in alpine and subalpine regions. There are two general wild types of this species, one native to the interior and one that grows along the Pacific coast and coastal mountains, but these are not always treated separately. This is a pere...
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188
Dryopteris expansa, alpine buckler fern or spreading wood fern, is a species of fern native to cool temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south at high altitudes in mountains to Spain and Greece in southern Europe, to Japan in eastern Asia, and to central California in North America. The species was first described from Germany. It prefers cool, moist mixed or evergreen forests and rock crevices on alpine slopes, often growing on rotting logs and tree stumps and rocky slope...
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189
Delphinium glaucum is a species of larkspur known by the common names Sierra larkspur, mountain larkspur, and waxy pale larkspur. This wildflower is native to western North America from Arizona to Alaska. It grows in moist mountainous environments, such as riverbanks and meadows. This plant sprouts one to several tall, stout, pale green erect stems which may approach three meters in height. The lobed leaves are generally found only at the base of the plant. The top of the stem is a large flower ...
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190
Rhododendron neoglandulosum (formerly Ledum glandulosum) is a species of rhododendron known by the common names western Labrador tea and trapper's tea. It is a common shrub of western North America from British Columbia to California to Colorado, where it grows in moist areas such as bogs and marshes. This is an erect evergreen shrub exceeding a meter in maximum height with hairless bark along the stem and hairy or nonhairy hairs on the newer twigs. The leathery leaves are oval-shaped and up to ...
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191
Goodyera oblongifolia is a species of orchid known by the common names western rattlesnake plantain and giant rattlesnake plantain. It is native to much of North America, particularly the western side of the continent from Alaska to Mexico, and to eastern Canada. It is most commonly found in mountain forests, often in the understory of conifers. This orchid forms a patch of broad lance-shaped to oval-shaped leaves at the ground, each 4 to 9 centimeters long. The leaf is dark green and in this sp...
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192
Lathyrus jepsonii is a species of wild pea known by the common names delta tule pea and Jepson's pea. It is endemic to California, where it grows in a number of habitat types, including forest and estuary. This is a perennial herb with a long, winged stem which climbs by means of branched, coiled tendrils. The leaves are made up of several pairs of lance-shaped leaflets. The plant bears an flower cluster of up to 15 pink or purplish flowers each up to 2 centimeters wide. The fruit is a hairless,...
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193
Polemonium californicum is a species of flowering plant in the phlox family known by the common names moving polemonium, low Jacob's ladder, and California Jacob's ladder. It is native to the northwestern United States, where it grows in shady and moist habitat, such as mountain woodlands. It is a hairy, hairy rhizomatous perennial herb forming clumps of several decumbent to erect stems 30 to 50 centimeters in maximum height. The leaves are up to 20 centimeters long and are compound, made up of ...
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194
Calochortus monophyllus is a species of flowering plant in the lily family known by the common name yellow star-tulip. It is native to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and southernmost Cascades in California, its range probably extending north just into Oregon. It is a perennial herb producing a slender, sometimes branched stem up to about 20 centimeters tall. The basal leaf is 10 to 30 centimeters in length and does not wither at flowering. There may be smaller leaves located along the stem. ...
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195
Anisocarpus madioides (syn. Madia madioides) is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name woodland madia. It is native to the west coast of North America from Vancouver Island in British Columbia to the Peninsular Ranges of southern California. It is a plant of forest and woodland habitat. This is a perennial herb growing up to about 75 centimeters in maximum height, its stem coated in rough hairs and stalked resin glands. The lower leaves are up to 12 centimeters...
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196
Lonicera conjugialis is a species of honeysuckle known by the common name purpleflower honeysuckle. It is native to the western United States from Pacific Northwest to the Sierra Nevada, where it grows in many types of mountain habitat, especially moist areas. This is a slender shrub often exceeding 1.5 meters in erect height. The lightly hairy leaves are oval to round and 2 to 8 centimeters long. The flower cluster is generally a pair of flowers nestled in a leaf axil toward the end of a branch...
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197
Parnassia californica is a species of flowering plant in the small plant family Parnassiaceae known by the common name California Grass of Parnassus. It is native to the mountains of Oregon, California, and Nevada, where it grows in moist areas such as meadows and streambanks. It is a perennial herb producing an erect flowering stem from a patch of basal leaves. The leaf is up to 14 centimeters long with an oval or spoon-shaped blade at the end of a long petiole. The flower cluster may be nearly...
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198
Anemone oregana is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common names blue windflower, Oregon anemone, and western wood anemone. It is native to the forests of the west coast of the United States. This is a perennial herb growing from a thick rhizome to a maximum height of 25 to 30 centimeters. There is usually a single basal leaf made up of three large leaflets on a long petiole. There are sometimes more leaves along the mostly naked stem. The flower cluster has thre...
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199
Keckiella lemmonii (formerly Penstemon lemmonii) is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family known by the common name Lemmon's keckiella. It is native to Oregon and northern California, where it grows in the coniferous forests and chaparral of coastal and inland mountain ranges. Its range may extend just into Nevada in the High Sierra. This is a small shrub with long, narrow, mostly unbranched stems reaching maximum heights near 1.5 meters. Oval-shaped, slightly toothed green leaves a...
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200
Ceanothus pumilus is a species of shrub in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae known by the common names dwarf ceanothus and Siskiyou mat. It is native to the mountains of southern Oregon and northern California, where it grows in habitat such as coniferous forest and chaparral, often on serpentine soils. This is a low-lying to flat shrub taking the form of a mat or bramble up to about 2.5 meters wide. The tiny evergreen leaves are oppositely arranged, each just over a centimeter in maximum length. ...
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