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734 damp soils plants native to California


1
The Fremont Cottonwood is a cottonwood native to North America, growing in riparian areas near streams, rivers, and wetlands in the southwestern part of the United States, and downwards into Mexico. It is a large tree growing from 12-35 meters in height, with a trunk up to 1.5 meter diameter. The bark is smooth when young, becoming deeply fissured with whitish cracked bark on old trees. Flower cluster consists of a long drooping catkin, which blooms from March to April. The fruit is a wind dispe...
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2
Names include Crimson Columbine, Western Columbine or (ambiguously) "Red Columbine". It is a common and attractive wildflower native to western North America, from Alaska to Baja California, and eastward to Montana and Wyoming. It is very often known as the "Red Columbine", but because this name is also used for a number of other members of the genus Aquilegia, it is not recommended. Within its range, the Crimson Columbine can be found in most kinds of habitat (chaparral, oak woodland, mixed-eve...
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3
Creek Dogwood (Cornus sericea ssp. sericea) is a native shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It was formerly known as Cornus stolonifera and is still referred to by that name in some sources. It is moderately fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in a semi-upright form to a height of up to 15 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. It is noted for its red bark, especially on new growth. Flowers are white and striking, and bloom in the spring. L...
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4
Western Sycamore is a species of plane tree known by several other common names, including California sycamore, California plane, and Aliso. It is native to California and Baja California, where it grows in canyons, floodplains, and along streams in several types of habitat. It is also planted as a landscape tree in its native range. This large tree grows to 35 meters in height, but is more commonly 20-25 meters, with a trunk diameter of up to one meter. A specimen on the campus of Stanford Univ...
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5
The sole species in the genus Carpenteria in the Hydrangea family, is an evergreen shrub native to California. It is closely related to the genus mock-orange genus. Common names include Tree-anemone and Bush-anemone. It is a rare species, endemic to only seven sites in Fresno and Madera Counties, where it grows in chaparral between 340-1340 meter altitude between the San Joaquin and King rivers. It is well adapted to wildfire, reproducing by stump sprouts after burning; natural seedlings are rar...
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6
Known by the common names Golden Currant, Buffalo Currant, Clove Currant and Missouri Currant, it is a species of small to medium-sized deciduous shrubs 6-10 feet tall. It blooms in spring with golden yellow flowers, often with a pronounced fragrance similar to that of cloves or vanilla. The flowers attract hummingbirds and monarch butterflies. Leaves are green, shaped similarly to gooseberry leaves, turning red in autumn. The plant is deciduous from late December to early February. The shrub pr...
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7
California Wax Myrtle (Morella californica) is a native shrub in the Myracaceae (Myrtle) family that is found primarily along the coast in northern and central California, although it does occur as far south as Los Angeles County and as far north as British Columbia. It is moderately fast growing and long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 33 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and bloom in the early summer. Leaves are lanceolate, dark green, ...
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8
Scarlet monkeyflower is a herbacious perennial in the lopseed family. It is an attractive plant which bears red or orange-red flowers and toothed, downy leaves. It is native to the southwestern United States and Baja California. It is typically found in wetlands or moist areas. It can take full sun but seems to do better with part shade. It is sometimes used as a garden plant for its blooms, which attract hummingbirds. It is a fairly large, spreading, attractive plant which bears strongly reflex...
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9
Acer macrophyllum (Bigleaf Maple or Oregon Maple) is a large deciduous tree. It grows to be up to 35 meters tall, but more commonly 15-20 meters tall. The trunk can get up to a meter in diameter. It is native to western North America, mostly near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska south to southern California. Some stands are also found inland in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California, and a tiny population occurs in central Idaho. It is winter deciduous, fea...
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10
Acer negundo is a species in the Sapindaceae (Soapberry) family native to North America known by the common names Box Elder, Boxelder Maple, and Maple Ash. In California it is found in the coastal mountain ranges from Mendocino County to San Diego County and in the Central Valley. It is often found in streamside locations but develops some drought tolerance in maturity if roots can reach underground moisture. It is deciduous with interesting fall color and seed pods and makes an attractive and h...
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11
White Alder is a member of the Birch family (Betulaceae) native to western North America, from Washington east to western Montana and south to San Diego County, occurring at altitudes of 100-2400 meters. It has not been reported from northern Baja California but has been predicted to occur there on the basis of its climatic adaptation. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15-25 meters (rarely to 35 meters) tall, with pale gray bark, smooth on young trees, becoming scaly on old trees. T...
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12
Vitis californica, or California Wild Grape, is a species of wild grape that grows throughout central and northern California, and occasionally in southern California. Specifically, it grows as far south as the foothills of the Transverse Range, over the entire range of Sequoia and Cascade Foothills, occasionally in the San Joaquin Valley, and throughout the Sacramento Valley, North Coast Range and Klamath Range, and into southern Oregon. It is a deciduous vine which can grow to over 10 meters (...
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13
Yerba mansa or lizard tail, is a perennial flowering plant within the family Saururaceae. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Anemopsis. It is native to southwestern North America. In early spring numerous tiny white flowers are borne on a cone which is surrounded by 4-9 large white spoon-shaped bracts that look like petals. As it matures, the visible part of the plant develops red stains, eventually turning bright red in the fall. Yerba mansa means "calming herb" in Spanish (yerba = "...
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14
Epipactis gigantea is a species of orchid known by the common names stream orchid and giant helleborine. This wildflower is native to western North America from western Canada to central Mexico. This is one of the most abundant orchids of the Pacific coast of North America.Epipactis gigantea is an erect perennial reaching anywhere from 30 centimeters to one meter in height. Its stems have wide or narrow lance-shaped leaves 5 to 15 centimeters long and inflorescences of two or three showy orchid...
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15
Ribes aureum var gracillimum, known by the common name Golden Currant, is a species of small to medium-sized deciduous shrub that grows 3-6 feet tall. It's native to the coast and foothill regions of California, growing most commonly in the southern foothills of the Transverse Range, and more rarely in the coastal ranges as far as the Mendocino National Forest. It blooms in spring with racemes of conspicuous golden yellow flowers, often with a pronounced fragrance similar to that of cloves or va...
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16
Spice Bush (Calycanthus occidentalis) is a native shrub that grows in canyons, streamsides and moist places, at elevations from 0 - 5000 feet in the California Coast Ranges, Sacramento Valley, Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges. Also found in Washington state, localized in the Seattle areaIt is a deciduous shrub growing 1-4 metres (3.3 - 13.1 ft) tall and wide. The bright green leaves are opposite, 5 - 15 centimetres (2.0 - 5.9 in) long and 2-6 centimetres (0.79 - 2.36 in) broad. The bark has a st...
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17
Carex barbarae is a species in the Cyperaceae (Sedge) family known by the common names Valley Sedge and Santa Barbara Sedge. Despite its common name it is not limited to the Santa Barbara area and is native to a large part of California and Oregon, where it grows in wet and seasonally wet habitat, such as meadows and riverbanks. This sedge produces angled, hairless stems up to one meter tall or slightly taller. The tough leaves are narrow with shredding, red-spotted or purple basal sheaths. The ...
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18
The Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus sericea, syn. C. stolonifera, Swida sericea) is a species of dogwood native throughout northern and western North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to Durango and Nuevo Len in the west, and Illinois and Virginia in the east. Other names include Redtwig Dogwood, Red-rood, American Dogwood, and (subsp. occidentalis) Western Dogwood. In the wild, it commonly grows in areas of damp soil, such as wetlands. It is a medium to tall deciduous shrub, growing 1....
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19
A species of sedge known by the common name San Diego sedge. It is native to the southwestern United States and far northern Mexico, where it grows in wet places, sometimes on serpentine soils. This sedge looks somewhat like a cattail. It produces angled stems easily exceeding a meter in height surrounded by leathery grey-green to reddish-green leaves (if drought stressed) up to about 1.2 meters long. The flower cluster is up to 80 centimeters long, with many long reddish brown flower spikes, ea...
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20
Red Willow is one of the most common riparian trees in California, usually growing in or very near creeks, at elevations from 0-5000 feet. It is an extremely fast growing tree - growing up to about 50 feet in height, and often more than 50 feet in width within 10 years if it gets plenty of water. The bark is ridged and grayish, though it sometimes turns reddish with age. Its form is variable, but it will often grow from multiple winding trunks, some more or less straight up, and some growing out...
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21
Woodwardia fimbriata is a species of fern known by the common name giant chain fern. It is native to the forests of the west coast of North America, and is the largest fern in North America. It has very long fronds, each reaching up to 8 feet in length. Its sori are short but broad and are arranged in neat lines, the characteristic that gives the chain ferns their name. The chain shape is visible on both surface and underside of each leaflet. It can be either evergreen or summer deciduous depend...
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22
Rubus parviflorus (Thimbleberry) is a species in the Rosaceae (Rose) family native to western and northern North America, from Alaska east to Ontario and Michigan and south to northern Mexico. It is widespread in California. It grows from sea level in the north, up to 2,500 meter altitude in the south of the range. It is a dense shrub up to 2.5 meter tall with canes 3-15 millimeter diameter, often growing in large clumps which spread through the plant's underground rhizome. Rubus is the genus of...
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23
The southern maidenhair fern, is a species of fern in the genus Adiantum with a semi-worldwide distribution. In the United States, it grows as far north as southern Missouri and southernmost Kentucky. In California it occurs in numerous locations and habitats throughout the state, but always where it is moist but not saturated and somewhat shaded. Often found near springs, seeps or stream banks, and even in desert palm oases. It is hardy to zone 7 and grows to 20-70 centimeters tall (8-28 inches...
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24
The California Wild Rose is a beautiful rose species that grows through the coast and foothills of California, and in the mountains up to elevations of 6000 feet. It is a deciduous thicket-forming shrub with prickly, curving stems. Each rose is open-faced and generally flat, with five petals in any shade of pink from almost white to deep magenta. The fragrant flowers may grow singly or in flower clusters of several blooms. It produces typical rose hips containing yellow seeds. The plant is nativ...
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25
Desert Wild Grape is a native vine or shrub that grows in southern California. It tends to grow in streamsides, at elevations from 0-4100 feet, but it is found in more arid areas than its close cousin, Vitis californica. It grows in southern oak woodlands, coastal sage scrub, pinyon-juniper woodland, joshua tree woodland, and riparian habitats. In the wild it tends to climb over other plants with stems reaching up to 50 ft. In the garden it can be trained to climb up a trellis, fence or wall. It...
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26
Sorrel or Oregon Oxalis (Oxalis oregana) is a species of the wood sorrel family, Oxalidaceae, native to moist coastal Douglas-fir and redwood forests of western North America from southwestern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. This area receives considerable summer moisture from fog drip. It is a short herbaceous perennial plant with erect flowering stems 5-15 centimeter tall. The three leaflets are heart-shaped, 1-4.5 centimeter long with purplish undersides, on 5-20 centime...
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27
Amorpha fruticosa is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by several common names, including desert false indigo and bastard indigobush. It is found throughout eastern Canada, northern Mexico, and most of the continental United States. In California it is native to the southwestern part of the state with scattered occurrences in the central valley. A. fruticosa grows as a hairy, thornless shrub which can reach 3 to 4 meters in height and spread to twice that in width. It is so...
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28
Yellow Eyed Grass is a native perennial herb that grows to about 8 inches tall. Its range includes Central and Northern California, primarily in the North Coast, the Central Coast and SF Bay regions. It tends to grow in moist places, at elevations from 0-2000 feet. This regions experiences wet winters and cool summers with abundant fog drip. It has yellow flowers that appear from May through June. It is a member of the Iris family (Iridaceae) and looks like a tiny iris or lily. It looks great in...
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29
One of the most distinctive of California's endemic plants is Aristolochia californica, the California pipevine or California Dutchman's-pipe. It is a deciduous vine with purple-striped curving pipe-shaped flowers which give rise to winged capsular green fruits. If given the right conditions it will flower profusely. After it blooms, the plant sends out new green heart-shaped leaves. The vines grow from rhizomes to a length of over twenty feet and can become quite thick in circumference at matur...
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30
Western Azalea is best known of three Rhododendron species native to California. It occurs as far north as Bandon, Oregon and as far south as the Palomar Mountain area in southern California, possibly also in Baja California, Mexico. It is a shrub capable of growing to 5 meters tall but more commonly around 3 meters. The leaves are deciduous, 3-9 centimeters long and 1-3 centimeters broad. The flowers are 3.5-5 centimeters in diameter, with five lobes on the corolla; color varies from white to p...
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31
Narrowleaf milkweed or Mexican whorled milkweed is a flowering perennial sending up many thin, erect stems and bearing distinctive long pointed leaves which are very narrow and often whorled about the stem, giving the plant its common names. It blooms in clusters of lavender or lavender-tinted white flowers which have five reflexed lobes that extend down away from the blossom. The fruits are smooth milkweed pods which split open to spill seeds along with plentiful silky hairs. This plant is comm...
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32
Woods' Rose is a native shrub that grows in Northern, Southern and Central California, primarily in mountainous areas including the Cascades, Sierra Nevada and Transverse Ranges. It is fast growing and long-lived, grows in an upright form to a height of 3 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are pink, striking and very fragrant, and bloom in the late spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in moist places, at elevations from 3500-11500 feet. It h...
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33
Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America. The species is referred to as Quaking Aspen, Trembling Aspen, and Quakies, names deriving from its leaves which flutter in even a slight breeze. The tree can become tall, up to 25 meters, but is more often half that height, with smooth pale bark scarred with black. The glossy green leaves, dull beneath, become golden to yellow, rarely red, in Autumn. The species rarely flowers, often propagating through its roots to...
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34
Arroyo Willow is an abundant and widespread native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in marshes or other wet areas, at elevations from 0-7000 feet. It grows in or adjacent to many habitats including coastal sage scrub, riparian, southern oak woodland, yellow pine forest, and central oak woodland habitats. It is an indicator species for freshwater marsh. It spreads by root runners and will tend to fill in moist areas. In the garden it must hav...
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35
Asarum caudatum (British Columbia wild ginger, Western wild ginger, or long-tailed wild ginger) is native to rich moist forests of western North America from British Columbia to California and as far east as western Montana. Within California it is found primarily along the coast from Santa Cruz County northward. In spring, it develops distinct hirsute (hairy) cup-shaped, brown-purple to green-yellow flowers which terminate in three long gracefully curved lobes, often concealed by leaves. The lo...
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36
Seep Monkey Flower is a yellow bee-pollinated wildflower that grows along the banks of streams and seeps in western North America and throughout most of California. It is also well liked by hummingbirds. This is a highly variable plant, taking many forms. It is a species complex in that there is room to treat some of its forms as different species by some definitions. Both annual and perennial forms occur throughout the species' range. It is found in a wide range of habitats including the splash...
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37
The Nootka Rose, Rosa nutkana, is a rose which is native to the Pacific Northwest. It takes its name from the Nuu-chah-nulth people, who are commonly though incorrectly known also as the Nootka. In California it is most commonly found near the coast from Sonoma County to Del Norte County. Like other wild roses, it prefers moist areas and will become a large, impenetrable thicket. The spines can be rather dangerous so don't plant near walkways. One plant association in which this rose occurs is t...
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38
Juglans californica, the California Black Walnut, also called the California Walnut, or the Southern California Black Walnut, is a large shrub or small tree (up to 30 feet tall) endemic to California. Some authorities (e.g. the California Native Plant Society) combines this species with J. hindsii. This article uses the The Jepson Manual convention of species,. Juglans californica, generally found in the southern half of the state, can be either a large shrub with 1-5 trunks, or a small single-t...
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39
Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry) is a species in the Rose family native to the west coast of North America from west central Alaska to California. In California it is found primarily along the coast from Santa Cruz County northward, typically in moist areas under tree canopy. It is a shrub growing to 1-4 meter tall, with perennial, not biennial woody stems (unlike other species). It forms large, dense patches given favorable conditions. The leaves are trifoliate, 7-22 centimeter long, the termina...
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40
Cardinal Flower is an evergreen species native to the Americas, from southeastern Canada through the eastern and southwestern United States, Mexico and Central America to northern Colombia. It tends to grow in very wet areas like stream bottoms, bogs and seeps. It grows to about a meter tall (when in flower) and has bright red flowers. Hummingbirds love it. Cardinal flower is often cultivated for ornamental purposes and has also been used for medicinal purposes. The plant is very alkaloid an...
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41
Dicentra formosa, the western bleeding heart or Pacific bleeding heart, is a flowering plant in Poppy family, generally found in moist wooded areas from California to British Columbia. It is a perennial that grows from a horizontal rootstock (tuber). The plant can approach half a meter in height. The flower has four petals between one and two centimeters long in shades of purple to pink to nearly white. The outer two petals curve and pouch, forming a rough heart shape. Leaves are finely divided ...
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42
Goodding's Black Willow (Salix gooddingii) is a common native tree that grows throughout the state in wetland areas. It has a moderate growth rate and is moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 15-40 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are green and bloom in the early spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in streamsides, at elevations from sea level to 2,000 feet. It performs in a wide variety of locations, from the s...
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43
Heuchera micrantha is a species of flowering plant in the saxifrage family known by the common name crevice alumroot. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California, where it grows on rocky slopes and cliffs. Within California it is found primarily in the central and northern Coast Ranges and Sierra foothills.This plant is quite variable in appearance. There are a number of wild and cultivated Varieties: The leaves are lobed and usually coated in glandular hairs. They ...
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44
Humboldt's Lily is a species of lily endemic to California named after naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt. It is native to the South High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, south Outer South Coast Ranges, and Southwestern California, growing at elevations from 600 meters (2,000 feet) to 1,200 meters (3,900 feet). It grows up to 8 feet tall, with flowers that are large and showy, golden-orange with dark red or maroon splotches and orange to brown stamens. The plant flowers in June, wi...
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45
Carex praegracilis is a species in the Cyperaceae (Sedge) family known by the common names clustered field sedge and expressway sedge. It is native to much of North America, from Alaska across southern Canada and throughout the continental United States except for the southeastern region. It grows in wet and seasonally wet environments in a number of habitats, including meadows and wetlands, and is often riparian or semi-riparian in the drier parts of its range. It tolerates disturbed habitat su...
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46
Lilium pardalinum, sometimes known as the panther lily or leopard lily, is a native of Oregon and California, where it usually grows in damp areas. In California it is found primarily in the central to northern part of the state in the Coast Ranges, Klamath mountains and Sierras. Typically it grows to about two meters high, the tallest and most vigorous plants can reach up to 2.5 meters. The flowers are Turk's-cap shaped, red-orange, with numerous brown spots, usually flowering in July. The plan...
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47
Yellow Bush or Coast Lupine is a species Fabaceae (Legume) family native to the western United States in California and Oregon, where it is widely distributed coastal scrub and sand dunes. Because it has been widely introduced, there is some uncertainty about its native range; it is thought to be native from Point Reyes National Seashore south to San Luis Obispo County. It is also considered somewhat invasive and has likely spread well out of its original range, especially around Humboldt Bay (s...
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48
Vervain (Verbena lasiostachys) is a native perennial herb in the Verbenaceae (Verbena) family that grows in northern, southern and central California, as well as Oregon. It is found primarily along the coast, in the Coast Ranges, foothills, and scattered inland locations. A pioneer species, t tends to grow in wet places, at elevations from 0-8200 feet. It is an aggressive spreader and should be used where it can be controlled. Its long blooming season is a plus, and it is a good butterfly plant.


49
Claytonia perfoliata (Miner's lettuce, Winter Purslane, Spring Beauty, or Indian lettuce; syn. Montia perfoliata) is an annual herb in the Montiaceae (Montia) family. It is native to a large portion of western North America, including almost every county in California. It is a trailing plant, growing to a maximum of 40 centimeter in length, but mature plants can be as small as 1 centimeter. The cotyledons are usually bright green (sometimes purplish or brownish-green), succulent, long and narrow...
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50
Heuchera rubescens is a species in the Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage) family. Its common name is Pink Alumroot. It is native to a large part of the western United States and northern Mexico. In California is is found primarily in the Sierras with scattered locations in the Klamath region and southern California. The plant grows as a low rosette of basal leaves from which the inflorescence arises, to 6 inches in height. All Heucheras have nodding bell-shaped flowers, leading to the common name Coral B...
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51
Lupinus polyphyllus is a species in the Fabaceae (Legume) family that is native to a large part of western North America. In California it is found primarily in the Sierras and other northern mountains. It commonly grows along streams and creeks, preferring moist habitats. It is a perennial herbaceous plant with stout stems growing to 1.5 meter tall. The leaves are palmately compound with (5-) 9-17 leaflets 3-15 centimeter long. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, each flower 1-1.5 centime...
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52
Spiny rush, sharp rush or sharp-pointed rush is of the monocot family Juncaceae and genus Juncus. It grows in salt marshes and on dunes and is reliable for reducing erosion rates. The stems which emerge from a central cluster have sharp terminal spines. It has been introduced in some countries like Australia where it is considered to be an invasive weed and the spines harmful to young children. In California it is found primarily along the central and southern coast. It is a brown and green "tus...
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53
Alnus incana (Grey or Speckled Alder) is a species in the Betulaceae (Birch) family with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. In California it is found primarily in the Sierras. It is a small to medium size tree 15-20 meter tall with smooth grey bark even in old age, its life span being a maximum of 60-100 years. The leaves are matte green, ovoid, 5-11 centimeter long and 4-8 centimeter broad. The flowers are catkins, appearing early in spring before the leaves emerge...
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54
Adiantum jordanii is a perennial species Pteridaceae known by the common name California maidenhair. It is native to California and Baja California. It grows in shaded woods, usually in wetter spots such as moist rock outcropping and lower parts of north facing slopes. It can take a little sun near the coast or full shade inland. Each trailing leaf may reach over half a meter in length and is made up of many rounded green segments. Each segment has two to four lobes and it may split between the ...
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55
California Polypody (Polypodium californicum) is a native fern that grows in northern, southern and central California, primarily along the coast, foothills and coastal mountains. It tends to grow in canyons, streambanks and north facing slopes, at elevations from sea level to 4,000 feet. It spreads slowly by rhizome. In areas that are wet year round it may stay evergreen; in areas of summer dryness it will become deciduous. It is one of the more popular native ferns for shade gardens.


56
The Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) is a large coniferous evergreen tree growing to 50-70 meter tall, exceptionally to 100 meter tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 5 meter, exceptionally to 6-7 meter diameter. Native to the northwest coast of North America, primarily Humboldt and Del Norte Counties in California, it is by far the largest species of spruce, and the third tallest conifer species in the world (after Coast Redwood and Coast Douglas-fir). Also, the fourth largest conifer (behin...
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57
Lonicera involucrata is a species in the Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle) family that is native to northern and western North America, from southern Alaska east across boreal Canada to Quebec, and south through the western United States to California, and to Chihuahua in northwestern Mexico. In California there are two recognized varieties with differing ranges. Var. involucrata has mostly yellow flowers and is found in the Sierras. Var. ledebourii has mostly red-orange flowers and is found along th...
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58
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana is a tree in the family Cupressaceae, known by the name Lawson's Cypress in the horticultural trade, or Port Orford Cedar in its native range (although not a true cedar). C. lawsoniana is native to the southwest of Oregon and the far northwest of California, occurring from sea level up to 1,500 meter (4,900 feet) altitude in mountain valleys, often along streams. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree, regularly reaching 50-70 meter (200 feet) tall, with feathery foliag...
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59
Boykinia occidentalis is a species of flowering plant in the saxifrage family known by the common name coastal brookfoam. It is native to the west coast of North America from British Columbia to Los Angeles County and in the central Sierras. It grows in shady areas near riverbanks and streams. It is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing large, palmate leaves with blades up to 45 centimeters long and 12 wide, borne on petioles up to 30 centimeters in length. Each leaf has several rounded lobes w...
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60
Maianthemum dilatatum (Two-leaved Solomon's Seal or False Lily of the Valley) is a common rhizomatous perennial flowering plant in the Ruscaceae Butcher's Broom) family. It is native to western North America from northern California to the Aleutian islands, and Asia across the Kamchatka Peninsula, Japan, and Korea. It grows in coastal temperate rainforests, and is often the dominant groundcover plant in Sitka Spruce forests. The plant produces an erect, unbranched stem up to about 40 centimeters...
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61
White Brodiaea (Triteleia hyacinthina) is a native perennial herb in the Themidaceae family that grows in northern and central California. It tends to grow at elevations from sea level to 7,200 feet in the Coast Ranges, Central Valley and Sierras. It grows from a corm that produces two or three strap-like leaves up to 16 in. long. The flower stalk can be up to 2 ft. tall topped by a cluster of a few to many funnel-shaped flowers. The white flowers are sometimes tinged with lavender. The large te...
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62
Hosackia gracilis is a species in the Fabaceae (Legume) family known by the common name Seaside Bird's-foot Trefoil. It is a rare plant native to western North America from British Columbia to California, as far south as San Luis Obispo County, where it grows in moist spots in the coastal mountains and down to the oceanside bluffs. Due to its limited distribution it is included on CNPS list 4.2. It is a perennial herb growing upright or spreading to about half a meter in maximum length. It is li...
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63
Calamagrostis nutkaensis is a species of grass known by the common names Pacific Reedgrass and Nootka Reedgrass. It is native to western North America from Alaska to San Luis Obispo County, where it is mainly a coastal species growing in moist areas such as beaches, dunes, coastal woodlands and wetlands. This is a perennial grass forming thick tufts of stems which may exceed a meter in height. There are several flat grass leaves up to a centimeter wide. The flower cluster is usually narrow and t...
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64
Cornus canadensis (Canadian Dwarf Cornel, Canadian Bunchberry, Crackerberry) is a herbaceous member of the Cornaceae (Dogwood) family. It is widespread outside of California, but within the state it is a rare species occurring only near the coast in Mendocino County. For this reason it is included on CNPS list 2B.2. It grows about 20-30 centimeters tall and bears tiny flowers a few millimeters across that form a cluster at the center of four white, petal-like leaves 3-4 centimeter diameter. Each...
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65
Mimulus lewisii (Lewis' Monkeyflower or Great Purple Monkeyflower) is a perennial herb in the Phrymaceae (Lopseed) family. It is native to western North America from Alaska to California to Colorado, where it grows in moist habitat such as streambanks at elevations between 5,000 and 10,000 ft. In California it is found primarily in the Sierras. It is named in honor of Meriwether Lewis. This is a mountain species that requires higher elevations, snow in winter, cool temperatures in summer, and pl...
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66
Holodiscus discolor is a shrub of western North America that is commonly known as ocean spray, creambush or ironwood. It is common in the Pacific Northwest where it is found in both openings and the forest understory at low to moderate elevations. It is a fast-growing deciduous shrub growing to 5 meter tall. Its alternate leaves are small, 5-9 centimeter long and 4-7 centimeter broad, lobbed, juicy green when new. Cascading clusters of white flowers drooping from the branches give the plant its...
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67
Lilium parvum is a species of lily known by the common names Sierra tiger lily and alpine lily. It is native to the Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada. The plant grows in mountainous forests, sending up stems with flower clusters of lily flowers during the summer months. The flowers are small for lilies, and more bell-shaped than most others. They are yellowish-orange to dark orange-red with lighter orange or yellow centers. The petals are spotted with purple or brown markings. There is a va...
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68
Darmera peltata (Indian rhubarb or, ambiguously, "umbrella plant") is the only species within the genus Darmera in the family Saxifragaceae. It is a slowly-spreading rhizomatous perennial from mountain streamsides in woodland in the western United States (southwestern Oregon to northwestern California). In late spring the flowers emerge before the leaves, with rounded cymes of numerous five-petalled white to bright pink flowers (measuring up to 1.5 centimeter across each) borne on flower stems u...
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69
Bigflower Tellima (Tellima grandiflora) is a native perennial herb in the Saxifagiaceae (Saxifrage) family that grows in central and northern California, from Santa Cruz northward. It is found in the Coast Ranges and northern Sierras. It tends to grow in the moist shade of evergreen forest at elevations from sea level to 5,000 feet. The basal leaves resemble Heuchera and other plants in the same family. The leaves and inflorescence are somewhat hairy. The spike-like raceme carries numerous red, ...
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70
Pacific Blackberry is a species in the Rosaceae (Rose) family that is native to a large part of western North America from Baja to Canada and from the coast to the Rocky Mountains. This is a wide, spreading shrub or vine-bearing bush with prickly branches, white flowers and edible fruits. This species is one of the original parents of the hybrids Loganberry and Boysenberry. Pacific Blackberry typically does not set fruit until the second year after planting, and it is typically dioeocious so tha...
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71
Common Snowberry is a native shrub in the Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle) family that is found in many parts of the state, from the coast to east of the Sierras, primarily in moist, shady locations below 4,000 ft. It is moderately fast growing and long-lived, spreading by rhizomes to form a dense thicket where conditions are suitable. It grows in a rounded form with stem tips tending to droop, to a height of 5+ feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Leaves are medium green and decid...
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72
Juncus patens is a species of grass-like plant known by the common name Common Rush. It is native to the western United States from Washington to California, and its range may extend into Mexico. Within California it is found primarily along the coastal and coastal mountain, in marshes and other wet areas. However, it can also be tolerant of summer drought and garden conditions. It is a perennial herb forming narrow, erect bunches of stems arising from a central clump. The stems are thin, gray-g...
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73
Grindelia stricta is a species of flowering plant in the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family known by the common names Coastal Gumweed and Oregon Gumweed. It is native to the west coast of North America from California to Alaska, where it is a resident of coastal plant communities such as those in marshes and beaches. In California it is found from the Channel Islands northwards, typically in close proximity to the coast. There are three recognized Varieties: This plant is variable in appearance, taki...
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74
Artemisia douglasiana is an aromatic shrub in the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family, although plants in this genus don't look like it. It is commonly called California Mugwort or Douglas' Sagewort. Found in virtually every county of California, this plant has been used as a ceremonial plant in many Native American cultures, for use in treating a minor injury or as a dream potentiator. The plant is native to the western United States and into Baja California where it is often found in moist areas suc...
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75
Elymus triticoides is species in the Poaceae (Grass) family known by the common names Creeping Wild Rye and Beardless Wild Rye. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Texas, where it often grows in moist habitat, sometimes with heavy and saline soils. It forms a solid, rhizomatous root system which allows it to grow at water's edge and prevent the soil from eroding. It reaches 1.3 meters in maximum height with stiff, slender green to blue-green leaves that stand away from...
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76
Tufted Hair-grass or Tussock grass (Deschampsia cespitosa or Deschampsia caespitosa) is a wild plant from the grass family (Poaceae). Distribution of this grass species is widespread including the eastern and western extremes of North America, parts of South America and Eurasia. In California it is most commonly found in the central and northern portions of the state, including the Coast Ranges and Sierras. It is found in coastal prairie habitat and mountain meadows, along with other native gras...
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77
Equisetum hyemale (Rough Horsetail or Scouring Rush) is a widespread species ative to moist forests, forest edges and stream banks, swamps, fens throughout most of California. It is primarily found in wetlands, and in riparian zones of rivers and streams where it can withstand seasonal flooding. It is also found around springs and seeps, and can indicate their presence when not flowing. Other habitats include moist forest and woodland openings, lake and pond shores, ditches, and marshes and swam...
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78
Soft rush (Juncus effusus) is a member of the Juncaceae (Rush) family found growing in wet areas, as indicated by the common name. It is very widespread and native to most continents; for this reason there are a number of native and non-native subspecies and varieties, and numerous synonyms. It grows in large clumps about 1.5 meters (5 feet) tall at the water's edge along streams, ditches and ponds and can be invasive anywhere with moist soil. It is commonly found growing in humus-rich areas suc...
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79
Salix exigua (Sandbar Willow) is a species in the Salicaceae (Willow) family native to most of North America except for the southeast and far north, occurring from Alaska east to New Brunswick, and south to northern Mexico. It is found in every county in California. It is a deciduous shrub reaching 4-7 meter (13-23 feet) in height, spreading by basal shoots to form dense clonal colonies. The leaves are narrow lance-shaped, 4-12 centimeter (1.6-4.7 inches) long and 2-10 millimeter (0.079-0.39 inc...
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80
Physocarpus capitatus (Pacific Ninebark) is a species in the Rosaceae (Rose) family native to western North America from southern Alaska east to Montana and Utah, and south to central California. It is found in the Coast Ranges and the Sierras. It is a dense deciduous shrub growing to 1 to 2.5 meters tall. The name comes from the appearance of the bark, which is flaky, peeling away in many layers. The shrub has distinctive maple-like lobed leaves 3-14 centimeter long and broad, and ball-like clu...
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81
Alkali Sacaton (Sporobolus airoides) is a native grass that grows in southern and central California. It is found near the coast, in the foothills, in the central valley, and in the desert mountains, but typically in locations where there is somewhat more moisture. Early settlers viewed it as an indicator of underground water. It is especially noted for its ability to tolerate alkaline soils. It is moderately fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 3 fe...
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82
Distichlis spicata is a species in the Poaceae (Grass) family. This grass is native to the Americas, where it is widespread. It can be found on other continents as well, where it is naturalized, and in California it is found in virtually every county. D. spicata is a hardy perennial with rhizomes and sometimes stolons. it can form dense, monotypic stands. It is an erect grass which occasionally approaches half a meter in height but is generally shorter. It spreads to occupy suitable areas. The s...
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83
Blechnum spicant is a species of fern within its own family (Blechnaceae) known by the common name Deer Fern. It is native to Europe and western North America. In California it is found primarily along the coast from Santa Cruz northward. It is found is damp, shaded forest areas such as Redwood Forest and Mixed Evergreen Forest. Like some other Blechnum species it has two types of leaves. The sterile leaves have flat, wavy-margined leaflets 5 to 8 millimeters wide and arch gracefully, while the ...
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84
Alnus rubra (red alder) is a deciduous broadleaf tree in the Betulaceae (Birch) family native to western North America. In California it is found primarily along the coast from San Luis Obispo County northward. In southern california Alnus rhombifolia is the more commonly found alder. Red Alder is the largest species of alder in North America and one of the largest in the world, reaching heights of 20-30 meters. The official tallest red alder (1979) stands 32 meters tall in Clatsop County, Orego...
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85
The California buttercup (Ranunculus californicus), a perennial herb of the Ranunculaceae family, brightens much of California (except the deserts) with 3/4 inch, remarkably glossy, deep yellow flowers, each with 9 to 17 petals. Their native habitat extends into Baja California, Oregon, and some Pacific coast islands. There are two recognized Varieties: Var californicus is widespread and the flowers rise above the basal leaves on 1 ft to 2ft branching stems. Var cuneatus is found primarily on th...
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86
Betula occidentalis (Water Birch) is a species in the Betulaceae family native to western North America. In California its distribution is somewhat patchy, being found in the southern Sierras, Siskiyu and Modoc counties. It typically occurs along streams in mountainous regions from 2,000 ft. to over 11,000 ft. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 10 meter high, usually with multiple trunks. The bark is dark red-brown to blackish, and smooth but not exfoliating. The twigs are smooth o...
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87
Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash) is a member of the Oleaceae (Olive) family native to western North America on the west side of the Cascade Range from southwestern British Columbia south through western Washington and western Oregon to central California. It can grow to 25 meters in height, with a trunk diameter of 30-80 centimeter, and it is typically larger in the northern part of its range. Trees can live to 250 years; young trees are fast growing, slowing down in maturity. It is usually found...
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88
Prunella vulgaris, known as common selfheal, heal-all, heart-of-the-earth or h kh tho in Vietnamese, is a medicinal plant in the genus Prunella. It grows from 1 to 2 feet high, with creeping, self-rooting, tough, square, reddish stems branching at leaf axis. The leaves are lance shaped, serrated and reddish at tip, about an inch long and 1/2 inch broad, grow on short stalks in opposite pairs down the square stem. The flowers grow from a clublike, somewhat square, whirled cluster, immediately bel...
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89
Gaultheria shallon is a leathery-leaved shrub in the heather family (Ericaceae), related to Manzanitas and Madrone. It is native to western North America as far north as Alaska. In California it is found primarily along the coast from Pt. Conception northwards. The foliage is dark green and attractive, sometimes used in commercial flower arrangements. The flowers are pink to white and urn-shaped, much like Manzanitas. The dark blue fruit is edible. Gaultheria shallon is very tolerant of both ope...
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90
Cephalanthus occidentalis is a species of flowering plant in the coffee family, Rubiaceae, that is native to the Central Valley in California, and to eastern and southern North America. Common names include Buttonbush, Common Buttonbush, Button-willow and Honey-bells. C. occidentalis is a deciduous shrub or small tree that averages 1-3 meter (3.3-9.8 feet) in height, but can reach 6 meter (20 feet). The leaves are opposite or in whorls of three, elliptic to ovate, 7-18 centimeter (2.8-7.1 inches...
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91
Aralia californica, known by the common name elk clover though not actually a clover, is a large herb in the family Araliaceae, the only member of that family native to California and southwestern Oregon. It is a deciduous herbaceous perennial plant growing to a height of 2-3 meters on stems which are thick but not woody. The stems bear large green pinnate or bipinnate leaves 1-2 meters long and 1 meter broad, the leaflets 15-30 centimeter long and 7-15 centimeter broad. The greenish white flowe...
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92
Juglans hindsii, the Hinds' Black Walnut, also called the Northern California Walnut, is a large tree (up to 60 feet tall) endemic to roughly circular area in California centered near Fresno and reaching the San Francisco Bay area. Some authorities (i.e. California Native Plant Society) describe this species as the subspecies Hindsii of the Southern California Black Walnut, J. californica S. Watson. This article uses the The Jepson Manual . Juglans hindsii, generally found in the northern half ...
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93
Black Cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa) is a native tree that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 100 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and bloom in the mid spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in alluvial bottomplands and streamsides, at elevations from 0-9000 feet. Tough and easy to grow as long as it is in ...
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94
Sierra Currant (Ribes nevadense) is a native shrub in the Grossulariaceae (Currant/Gooseberry) family that grows primarily in the mountainous interior regions of the state. It is moderately fast growing and long-lived. It grows in a semi-upright form to a height of 6 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are red and striking, and bloom in the late spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in open places, at elevations from 3,000-10,000 feet but is s...
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95
Juncus mexicanus (Mexican Rush) is native to the southwestern quadrant of the United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America. It is a plant of moist areas in a great number of habitats, from coast to desert to mountain and from sea level to 10,000 ft. It may be found in standing water or saturated soil. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb which varies in appearance. The thin erect stems reach a maximum height anywhere from 10 to 80 centimeters. The leaves grow from the base of ...
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96
California Hedgenettle (Stachys bullata) is a native perennial herb in the Lamiaceae (Mint) family that is found primarily along the coastal strip from the Bay Area southward. Despite its common name, it does not form a hedge and it does not sting like true nettles. Instead, it is a delicate, attractive flowering plant that performs well in damp, partially shaded areas. It tends to grow in wet, swampy, boggy places, at elevations from sea level to 1,600 feet. It tolerates inundation but is usual...
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97
Eleocharis macrostachya is a species in the Cyperaceae (Sedge) family known by the common name Common Spikerush. It is widely distributed across North America and occurs in parts of South America. It is a plant of varied moist habitats, including freshwater lakes and brackish marshes and ponds, ditches, vernal pools, and wet meadows. This is a rhizomatous perennial generally reaching heights between one half and one meter. It has bright green erect stems and straw-colored basal leaves. The top o...
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98
California Hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa ssp. holciformis) is one of three recognized subspecies of this native bunchgrass. Ssp. holicformis grows in Central and Northern California, primarily along the coast and in the Coast Ranges. It is found in coastal prairie habitat and mountain meadows, along with other native grasses such as Fescues (Festuca spp.) and Needlegrass (Stipa spp.). It is most often found in moist to very wet areas such as freshwater or saltwater marsh, riparian areas, and ...
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99
California Bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus) is a native perennial herb in the Cyperaceae (Sedge) family that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is also found in Oregon and across the southern states to Florida. It is a definitive species of freshwater or brackish marshes, found in perennially inundated areas such as lakes and ponds, but generally not in flowing water. It tolerates standing water several feet deep where it creates sometimes massive patches. It occurs at e...
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100
Cyperus eragrostis is a species in the Cyperaceae (Sedge) family known by several common names, including tall flatsedge, Nutsedge and Tall Cyperus. It is almost always found in wetland-riparian areas where it can spread rapidly. It is a green sedge with tall, erect stems, and long, thin, pointed leaves. Its flowers are found within tough, rounded, greenish-yellow or beige spikelets. This species is originally native to the western United States but it has become naturalized across North America...
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