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216 trees native to California


101
The Knobcone Pine (Pinus attenuata) is a tree that grows in mild climates on poor soils. It ranges from the mountains of southern Oregon to Baja California with the greatest concentration in northern California and the Oregon-California border. This pine reaches heights of 8-24 m; however, it can be a shrub on especially poor sites. It prefers dry rocky mountain soils. The crown is usually conical with a straight trunk. The bark is smooth, flaky and gray-brown when young, becoming dark gray-red...
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102
Quercus durata (California Scrub Oak, Leather Oak; syn. Quercus dumosa revoluta Sarg.) is an oak endemic to California. This plant is classified as one of the shrub oaks due to its smaller size. It often used as an urban tree and medicinal plant. In the wild, Quercus durata usually grows in serpentine soils, often with manzanita in the chaparral of the Coast Ranges from Klamath to San Luis Obispo. There are outlying populations in the Sierras and the San Gabriel Mountains. CNPS considers the San...
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103
Quercus durata var. durata is the most common variety of Leather Oak. It tends to grow at elevations from 500-4900 feet, primarily in the central Coast Ranges. The other variety, var. gabrielensis, is a rare plant restricted to the Transverse Range. Leather oak is often found on serpentine soils. However, in the garden this plant does not require serpentine soil and can tolerate garden soil as well as drought and clay-rich soils. However, it is best adapted to relatively dry, rocky, nutrient-poo...
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104
Lemmon's Willow (Salix lemmonii) is a native shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is fast growing and long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 14 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and bloom in the early spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in streams, at elevations from 5000-10000 feet.


105
The Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine tree that occurs in the mountains of the Western United States and Canada, specifically the subalpine areas of the Rocky Mountains from southwest Alberta south to the Mexican border; the Great Basin mountains of Nevada and Utah; and the White Mountains, the east slope of the Sierra Nevada and the San Bernardino Mountains in California with a small disjunct population in the Black Hills of South Dakota. It is typically a high-...
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106
Pinus contorta is a common tree in western North America with the bulk of its population to the north and east of California. Within California it is found primarily in the Sierras, with scattered populations in other mountains. There are three recognized subspecies which can vary greatly in appearance. In the Sierras ssp. Murrayana can be very tall with a straight trunk, consistent with the common name Lodgepole Pine. It is found at elevations from 1,500 ft. to 12,000 ft. Near the coast ssp. co...
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107
Quercus x macdonaldii, formerly Quercus macdonaldii, with the common names MacDonald's oak and Macdonald oak, is a rare species of oak in the Fagaceae family. The tree is endemic to the California Channel Islands, on Santa Cruz Island, Santa Rosa Island, and Santa Catalina Island, in Southern California. It is found in chaparral and woodlands habitats in canyons and slopes below 600 metres (2,000 ft). Quercus x macdonaldii is a Vulnerable species, threatened by habitat loss. Taxonomy. The plant ...
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108
Mackenzie's Willow (Salix prolixa) is a native tree or shrub that grows in Central and Northern California, primarily in the Klamath Mountain Range, the High Cascade Range and High Sierra Nevada regions. It is moderately fast growing and short-lived. It grows in a semi-upright form to a height of 45 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are white and striking, and bloom in the early spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in streams, at elev...
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109
Cupressus macnabiana (MacNab Cypress or Shasta Cypress) is a species of cypress endemic to northern California. It is one of the most widely distributed of all the native California cypresses, found growing in chaparral, oak woodlands and coniferous woodlands along the inner northern Coast Ranges and the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree, 3-12 meter (rarely to 17 meter) tall, with a spreading crown that is often broader than it is tall. The foliage ...
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110
The Pacific Madrone (Arbutus menziesii), is a species of arbutus found on the west coast of North America, from British Columbia (chiefly Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands) to California (mainly in the Puget Sound, Oregon Coast Range and California Coast Ranges but also scattered on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains). It becomes rare south of Santa Barbara County, with isolated stands south to Palomar Mountain, San Diego County and northern Baja California, Mexico. It is also kno...
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111
Horticultural selection from Chilopsis linearis. Desert willows have long narrow leaves and produce an abundance of fragrant flowers from late spring and continue to early fall. The flowers from the tree are favorites with hummingbirds and other pollinators. This deciduous tree is easy and fast-growing. It is naturally a multi-trunk tree but can be pruned to a single trunk. Use it for summer shade in a dry garden where its dramatic blooms will draw plenty of attention. 'Maggie's Pink' Desert Wil...
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112
Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana) is a common subspecies of the small to medium-sized flowering tree in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, but has been introduced to at least a half-dozen other countries. In California's Central Valley and deserts it is an important habitat plant for many species of wildlife. Honey Mesquite has a rounded crown and crooked, drooping branches with feathery foliage and straight, paired spines on twigs...
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113
Cornus sessilis is a species of dogwood known by the common names blackfruit cornel or blackfruit dogwood and miner's dogwood. This is a shrub or small tree which is endemic to northern California, where it grows along streambanks in the Cascades, Sierra Nevada, and the coastal mountain ranges. It is a tree of the understory in its native range. This dogwood may approach five meters in height at maximum. It is deciduous, bearing deeply-veined oval green leaves in season which turn red before fal...
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114
Prunus eremophila is a rare species of plum that is known by its common name Mojave Desert plum. It is endemic to San Bernardino County, California, where it is known only from the Vontrigger Hills of the eastern Mojave National Preserve, including Lanfair Valley. It occurs in Mojave Desert scrub habitat. The plant was described to science only in 2001 or 2002 and little is known about its ecology. This is a bulky shrub with tangled, thorny branches. It reaches over two meters in maximum height....
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115
Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey Cypress, Macrocarpa; syn. Callitropsis macrocarpa (Hartw.) D.P.Little) is a species of cypress endemic to the central coast of California. In the wild, the species is confined to two small populations, near Monterey and Carmel. These two small populations represent what was once a very large forest on the west coast. The surviving trees from this forest are as old as 2000 years. These small Cypress forest groves are protected, within Point Lobos State Reserve and ...
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116
Pinus radiata, commonly known as Monterey pine, insignis pine or radiata pine, is a coniferous evergreen tree growing to between 15 - 30 m (49 - 98 ft) in height in the wild, but up to 60 m (200 ft) in cultivation in optimum conditions, with upward pointing branches and a rounded top. The leaves ('needles') are bright green, in clusters of three (two in var. binata), slender, 8 - 15 cm (3.1 - in) long and with a blunt tip. The cones are 7 - 17 cm (2.8 - 6.7 in) long, brown, ovoid (egg-shaped), a...
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117
Mountain Alder (Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia) is a native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 20 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are purple and bloom in the early spring. Leaves are dark green and deciduous. It tends to grow in wet places, at elevations from 4500-8000 feet.


118
Tsuga mertensiana (Mountain Hemlock) is a species of hemlock native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and its southeastern limit in northern Tulare County, California. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 20-40 meter tall, exceptionally 59 meter, and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 meter. The bark is thin and square-cracked or furrowed, and gray in color. The crown is a neat slender conic shape in young trees with a ti...
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119
Mountain Maple (Acer glabrum var. torreyi) is a native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow in moist slopes and canyons, at elevations from 4900-9200 feet.


120
Salix eastwoodiae is a species of willow known by the common names mountain willow, Eastwood's willow, 'and Sierra willow. It is native to the northwestern United States, where it grows in subalpine and alpine climates in mountain habitats such as talus and streambanks. It is a shrub growing up to 4 m (13 ft) tall, with branches yellowish, brown, red, or purplish in color and coated in short hairs, sometimes becoming hairless. The leaves are narrowly or widely lance-shaped and up to 10 cm long, ...
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121
Populus angustifolia is a species of poplar tree known by the common names Narrowleaf Cottonwood and Willow-leaved Poplar. This tree is native to the Great Basin in the United States where it is most often found by streams and creeks at some elevation. The tree is slim in profile, with yellow-green lance-shaped leaves-(lance-shaped), with scalloped margins. The catkins are fluffy and white. The buds are sticky and gummy and were enjoyed as a sort of chewing gum by local Native American peoples, ...
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122
Salix exigua var. exigua is a native tree or shrub that grows in northern California.


123
New Mexican Locust (or New Mexico, Southwest, Desert, Pink, or Rose Locust), Robinia neomexicana, is a shrub or small tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae, native to the southwestern United States (southeastern California and southernmost Utah east through Arizona and New Mexico to west Texas) and adjoining northern Mexico. In California it is uncommon below 1500 meter (5000 feet) in canyons in pinyon-juniper country. Farther east, it is typically found between 1200 and 260...
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124
Grows best in loamy, medium draining soil. Selection (male) for the garden.


125
The Noble Fir (Abies procera) is a western North American fir, native to the Cascade Range and Coast Range mountains of extreme northwest California and western Oregon and Washington in the United States. It is a large evergreen tree typically up to 40-70 meter (130-230 feet) tall and 2 meter (6.5 feet) trunk diameter, rarely to 90 meter (295 feet) tall and 2.7 meter (8.9 feet) diameter, with a narrow conic crown. The bark on young trees is smooth, grey, and with resin blisters, becoming red-br...
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127
Juglans hindsii, the Hinds' Black Walnut, also called the Northern California Walnut, is a large tree (up to 60 feet tall) endemic to roughly circular area in California centered near Fresno and reaching the San Francisco Bay area. Some authorities (i.e. California Native Plant Society) describe this species as the subspecies Hindsii of the Southern California Black Walnut, J. californica S. Watson. This article uses the The Jepson Manual . Juglans hindsii, generally found in the northern half ...
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128
Quercus dumosa is a species of plant in the Fagaceae family. This shrub/small tree goes by the common name Coastal sage scrub oak. It is found in Mexico and the United States. It is threatened by habitat loss. The species Quercus dumosa lends its name to the eponymous plant community Quercus dumosa chaparral, in which Coastal sage scrub oak and toyon often co-dominate. It is easily confused with other scrub oaks such as Quercus berberidifolia, with which it may hybridize.This plant is an evergre...
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129
The Single-leaf Pinyon (Pinus monophylla) is a pine in the pinyon pine group, native to the United States and northwest Baja, Mexico. Within California it is found in the Sierras, the Transverse Range, and Peninsular Range. It occurs at moderate altitudes from 1200-2300 meter, rarely as low as 950 meter and as high as 2900 meter, in the most arid areas occupied by any pine in California. It is widespread and often abundant in this region, forming extensive open woodlands, often mixed with junipe...
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130
Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash) is a member of the Oleaceae (Olive) family native to western North America on the west side of the Cascade Range from southwestern British Columbia south through western Washington and western Oregon to central California. It can grow to 25 meters in height, with a trunk diameter of 30-80 centimeter, and it is typically larger in the northern part of its range. Trees can live to 250 years; young trees are fast growing, slowing down in maturity. It is usually found...
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131
Malus fusca (common name: Oregon crabapple or Pacific crabapple) is a species of crabapple. It is native to western North America from Alaska to California, where it grows in coniferous forests. The fruits are small round apple-shaped pomes. The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked, however it has an acidic flavor. The fruit can also be used to make pectin. The bark can be used as a herbal medicine. It is also grown in parks and gardens as an ornamental plant.


132
Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana var. garryana) is a native tree that grows in central and northern California. It tends to grow in slopes, at elevations from 1000-5900 feet.


133
Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana var. semota) is a native tree that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow at elevations from 2000-5900 feet.


134
Pacific Silver Fir is native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range from the extreme southeast of Alaska, through western British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, to the extreme northwest of California. It grows at altitudes of sea level to 1,500 meters in the north of the range, and 1,000-2,300 meters in the south of the range, always in temperate rain forest with relatively high precipitation and cool, humid summers. Common assoc...
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135
Taxus brevifolia (Pacific Yew or Western Yew) is a conifer native to the Pacific Northwest of North America. It ranges from southernmost Alaska south to central California, mostly in the Pacific Coast Ranges, but with an isolated disjunct population in southeast British Columbia, most notably occurring on Zuckerberg Island near Castlegar and south to central Idaho. It is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10-15 meter tall and with a trunk up to 50 centimeter diameter, rarely more. ...
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136
Pinus quadrifolia, the Parry pinyon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group native to southernmost California in the United States and northern Baja California in Mexico, from 33 degrees 30' N south to 30 degrees 30' N. It occurs at moderate altitudes from 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), rarely as low as 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) and as high as 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). It is scarce and often scattered in this region, forming open woodlands, usually mixed with junipers. Other common...
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137
This tree is a hybrid between Catalpa bignonioides and Chilopsis linearis. It has long 3-5 inch dark green leaves and from the chilopsis inherited the ability to withstand some dry heat. It is frost hardy once established but we noticed it to struggle its first couple of winters when the temperature dipped below 15F. We love it for its beautiful azalea like pink blossoms and very long flowering season through the spring, summer and fall. It grows deep tap roots so you can plant near a path, pati...
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138
Cupressus nevadensis, now reclassified as 'Hesperocyparis nevadensis, with the common name Paiute cypress, is a species of cypress tree native to a small area in Sierra Nevada of California, in the western United States. The Paiute cypress grows in a small area of the Southern Sierra Nevada, within Kern County, California and Tulare County. It is found on soils of granitic origin at altitudes of 3,000-6,000 feet (910-1,830 m). It is found in pinyon/juniper and oak/pine woodlands, chaparral, and...
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139
Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the Ponderosa Pine, Bull Pine, Blackjack Pine, or Western Yellow Pine, is a widespread and variable pine native to western North America. It was first described by David Douglas in 1826, from eastern Washington near present-day Spokane. It is a dominant tree in the Kuchler plant association Ponderosa shrub forest. Like most western pines, the ponderosa is associated with mountainous topography. It is found on the Black Hills and on foothills and mid-height peak...
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140
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana is a tree in the family Cupressaceae, known by the name Lawson's Cypress in the horticultural trade, or Port Orford Cedar in its native range (although not a true cedar). C. lawsoniana is native to the southwest of Oregon and the far northwest of California, occurring from sea level up to 1,500 meter (4,900 feet) altitude in mountain valleys, often along streams. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree, regularly reaching 50-70 meter (200 feet) tall, with feathery foliag...
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141
Pygmy Cypress (Callitropsis pygmaea) is a rare native tree that grows in central and northern California. It tends to grow at elevations from 100-2000 feet.


142
Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America. The species is referred to as Quaking Aspen, Trembling Aspen, and Quakies, names deriving from its leaves which flutter in even a slight breeze. The tree can become tall, up to 25 meters, but is more often half that height, with smooth pale bark scarred with black. The glossy green leaves, dull beneath, become golden to yellow, rarely red, in Autumn. The species rarely flowers, often propagating through its roots to...
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143
Alnus rubra (red alder) is a deciduous broadleaf tree in the Betulaceae (Birch) family native to western North America. In California it is found primarily along the coast from San Luis Obispo County northward. In southern california Alnus rhombifolia is the more commonly found alder. Red Alder is the largest species of alder in North America and one of the largest in the world, reaching heights of 20-30 meters. The official tallest red alder (1979) stands 32 meters tall in Clatsop County, Orego...
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144
Sambucus racemosa is a species of elderberry known by the common names red elderberry and Red-berried Elder. It is native to Europe, northern temperate Asia, and North America across Canada and the United States. It grows in riparian environments, woodlands, and other habitats, generally in moist areas. Sambucus racemosa is often a treelike shrub growing 2-6 metres (6. 6-19. 7 ft) tall. The stems are soft with a pithy center. Each individual leaf is composed of 5 to 7 leaflike leaflets, each o...
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145
Adenostoma sparsifolium (Redshanks or less commonly, Ribbonwood) is a multi-trunked tree or shrub in the Rosaceae (Rose) family that is native to dry inland slopes or chaparral of Southern California and northern Baja California below 6,000 ft. Shaggy falling shanks or ribbons of bark are one of the strongest characteristics of the tree, hence the common names. Redshanks are closely related to the more abundant Chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum). Members of this genus are very deep rooted and imp...
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146
Red Willow is one of the most common riparian trees in California, usually growing in or very near creeks, at elevations from 0-5000 feet. It is an extremely fast growing tree - growing up to about 50 feet in height, and often more than 50 feet in width within 10 years if it gets plenty of water. The bark is ridged and grayish, though it sometimes turns reddish with age. Its form is variable, but it will often grow from multiple winding trunks, some more or less straight up, and some growing out...
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147
Acer glabrum is a species of maple native to western North America, from southeastern Alaska, British Columbia and western Alberta, east to western Nebraska, and south through Washington, Montana and Colorado to California, Arizona and New Mexico. It is a small tree growing to 10 meters tall, with a trunk diameter up to 20-30 centimeters. The flowers are produced in corymbs of five to ten, yellowish-green, at the same time as the new leaves in spring. The fruit is a samara with two winged seeds...
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151
Sandbar Willow (Salix hindsiana) is a native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow at elevations from 0-5500 feet.


152
Salix exigua (Sandbar Willow) is a species in the Salicaceae (Willow) family native to most of North America except for the southeast and far north, occurring from Alaska east to New Brunswick, and south to northern Mexico. It is found in every county in California. It is a deciduous shrub reaching 4-7 meter (13-23 feet) in height, spreading by basal shoots to form dense clonal colonies. The leaves are narrow lance-shaped, 4-12 centimeter (1.6-4.7 inches) long and 2-10 millimeter (0.079-0.39 inc...
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154
Cupressus abramsiana (Santa Cruz cypress) is a rare North American species of trees in the cypress family. It is endemic to the Santa Cruz Mountains of Santa Cruz and San Mateo Counties in west-central California. When cypresses were discovered in the Santa Cruz Mountains in 1881, they were first identified as Cupressus goveniana, but Jepson (1909) considered them to be Cupressus sargentii. In a detailed analysis, Wolf (1948) concluded it was a distinct species, naming it after L. R. Abrams, Eme...
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156
Santa Cruz Island Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus) is a native tree that grows in Southern and Central California, primarily in the Channel Islands region. It tends to grow in rocky slopes, at elevations from 100-1600 feet. Lyonothamnus is endemic to the Channel Islands of California, where it grows in the chaparral and oak woodlands of the rocky coastal canyons.This is a tree growing up to 15 meters (49 ft) tall with peeling reddish gray or brown bark. The evergreen leaves are shiny, dark gr...
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157
Grows best in loamy, medium draining soil. Selected for the garden.


158
The Bristlecone Fir or Santa Lucia Fir (Abies bracteata) is a rare fir, confined to slopes and the bottoms of rocky canyons in the Santa Lucia Mountains on the central coast of California, USA. It is a tree 20-35 meter tall, with a slender, spire-like form. The bark is reddish-brown with wrinkles, lines and resin vesicles ('blisters'). The branches are downswept. The needle-like leaves are arranged spirally on the shoot, but twisted at the base to spread either side of the shoot in two moderatel...
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159
Santa Rosa Isl. Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana ssp. insularis) is a rare native tree that grows in southern and central California.


160
Cupressus sargentii is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family known by the common name Sargent's cypress. It is endemic to California, where it is known from Mendocino county southwards to Santa Barbara county. This taxon is limited to the Coast Range mountains. Like Mcnab Cypress, it is one of the most widespread of the California Cypresses. It grows in forests with other conifers, as well as chaparral and other local mountain habitat, usually in pure stands on serpentine soils. It gen...
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161
Salix scouleriana, or Scouler's Willow, is a species of willow native to western North America. Other names occasionally used include fire willow, Nuttall willow, mountain willow, and black willow. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree, depending on the environment, usually with multiple stems that reach 2 to 7 meter in height in dry, cold, high elevation, and other difficult environments, and 10 to 20 meter in favorable sites. The stems are straight and support few branches generally resulting...
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162
Prosopis pubescens, commonly known as Screwbean Mesquite or Tornillo, is a species of flowering shrub or small tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the southwestern United States (Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, California, southern Nevada and Utah) and northern Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora). In California it is found primarily in desert areas from Inyo County southward. It has light brown bark, usually short, straight spines (1-3 centimeter/0.39-1.2 inches), t...
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163
The California Scrub Oak is a small evergreen or semi-evergreen shrubby oak in the white oak section. It grows up to 6 meters in height. It has variable, dull green leaves which are 1.5-3 centimeter long and 1-2 centimeter broad, leathery on their top surfaces and somewhat hairy underneath. Flowers are yellow but inconspicuous. The solitary or paired brown acorns are 1-3 centimeters long and 1-2 centimeters broad, and pointed or egg-shaped with thin caps when mature; they mature in about 6-8 mon...
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165
Salix lasiandra is a native willow tree that grows in virtually every county of the state in wetland-riparian areas. It is a suckering willow that will extend its roots and spread into any area that has sufficient moisture. It was formerly classified as a subspecies of Salix lucida, and some sources may still refer to it by that name. There are two recognized Varieties: Var. lasiandra is widespread. Var. caudata (Shining Willow) is less common and restricted to the Sierras and northward. Like al...
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166
Shore Pine (Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) is a native tree that grows in Central and Northern California, primarily in the North Coast region. It tends to grow at elevations from 0-11500 feet.


168
Salix brachycarpa is a species of flowering plant in the willow family known by the common names barren-ground willow, small-fruit willow and shortfruit willow. It is native to North America, where it occurs throughout Alaska except for the Aleutian Islands and southeastern coastal region, in western and northern Canada, and in the contiguous United States in the Rocky Mountains south to Colorado. A shrub growing up to 1. 5 meters tall, S. brachycarpa is low in stature or sometimes prostrate. Th...
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169
Quercus parvula var. shrevei, or Shreve Oak, is an evergreen red oak found in the California Coast Ranges from Santa Barbara County north to Mendocino County. It was taxonomically combined with Quercus wislizeni until resurrected as a separate species by Kevin Nixon in 1980. Recent work suggests Q. parvula var. parvula to be Q. parvula var. shrevei x Q. wislizeni. It generally occurs in foothills where it is common in the low elevations. It is a large shrub or tree growing to 22 meters (73 fee...
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170
Sierra Bladdernut (Staphylea bolanderi) is a uncommon native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow at elevations from 0-4500 feet.


171
Juniperus grandis (Sierra juniper) is a shrub or tree native to California, United States. A medium-sized tree 12-26 m tall with a stout trunk up to 3 m diameter. Cones 5-9 mm diameter. Most plants dioecious, but about 5-10% are monoecious. A medium-sized tree 12-26 m tall with a stout trunk up to 3 m diameter. Cones 5-9 mm diameter. Most plants dioecious, but about 5-10% are monoecious. Synonyms: Juniperus occidentalis var. australisHabitat. Exposed, dry, rocky slopes, flats, forest, pinyon/jun...
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172
Giant sequoias are the world's largest single trees by volume. Record trees have been measured to be 94.8 m (311 ft) in height and over 17 m (56 ft) in diameter. The oldest known giant sequoia based on ring count is 3,500 years old. Sequoia bark is fibrous, furrowed, and may be 90 cm (3.0 ft) thick at the base of the columnar trunk. It provides significant fire protection for the trees. The leaves are evergreen, awl-shaped,.12-24 inches long, and arranged spirally on the shoots. The seed cones a...
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173
Sierra Willow (Salix orestera) is a native shrub that grows in Central and Northern California, primarily in the White and Inyo Mountains, the High Sierra Nevada and Sierra Nevada East regions. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 10 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are yellow and bloom in the mid spring. Leaves are medium green and deciduous. It tends to grow in meadows and wet places, at elevations from 740...
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174
Sitka Alder (Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata) is a native tree or shrub that grows in Northern California, primarily in the North Coast, the Klamath Mountain Range and North Coast Range regions. It is slow growing and long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 16 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Leaves are light-green and deciduous. It tends to grow in creek and meadow edges, at elevations from 3300-8900 feet.


175
The Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) is a large coniferous evergreen tree growing to 50-70 meter tall, exceptionally to 100 meter tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 5 meter, exceptionally to 6-7 meter diameter. Native to the northwest coast of North America, primarily Humboldt and Del Norte Counties in California, it is by far the largest species of spruce, and the third tallest conifer species in the world (after Coast Redwood and Coast Douglas-fir). Also, the fourth largest conifer (behin...
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176
Sitka Willow (Salix sitchensis) is a native tree or shrub that grows in northern, southern and central California. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. It grows in an upright form to a height of 23 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Flowers are white and bloom in the . Leaves are light-green and deciduous. It tends to grow in edges of lakes and streams and wet meadows, at elevations from 3300-11200 feet.


177
The Smokethorn (Psorothamnus spinosus) is a perennial legume tree common to the desert washes of the southern part of California, Arizona, and most of Baja California. The Smokethorn is also common to Joshua Tree National Park, where it is called the Smoketree. The twigs of the Smokethorn are slender and densely covered with fine whitish hairs. The flowers are lateral clusters of purple in June, with small seeded pea pods as its fruit.


178
Salix reticulata, the net-leaved willow, or snow willow, is a dwarf willow, native to the colder parts of Europe, North America, and Northern Asia. It is found in the western United States (Salix reticulata subsp. nivalis), including the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. In Europe it extends south through the Carpathian Mountains and Alps to the Pyrenees and the mountains of Macedonia. It is common in Canada, Greenland and Finland, and present but rare in Scotland. The plant grows on wet, often...
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179
Grows best in sandy, coarse-grained or other fast draining soil. Selected for the garden.


180
Juglans californica, the California Black Walnut, also called the California Walnut, or the Southern California Black Walnut, is a large shrub or small tree (up to 30 feet tall) endemic to California. Some authorities (e.g. the California Native Plant Society) combines this species with J. hindsii. This article uses the The Jepson Manual convention of species,. Juglans californica, generally found in the southern half of the state, can be either a large shrub with 1-5 trunks, or a small single-t...
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181
The Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) is a species in the Pinaceae (Pine) family native to the mountains of the western U.S. In California it is restricted to the far northern part of the state in the Trinity Alps. It occurs at high altitudes, from 1,880 to 2,270 meters, and it is commonly found immediately below the tree line. It is a medium-sized tree growing to 20 meters tall, exceptionally to 40-50 meters tall, with a trunk up to 1 meter diameter, and a very narrow conic crown. The bark on yo...
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183
Pinus lambertiana (commonly known as the sugar pine or sugar cone pine) is the tallest and most massive pine tree, and has the longest cones of any conifer. It is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine occurs in the mountains of Oregon and California in the western United States, and Baja California in northwestern Mexico; specifically the Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, and Sierra San Pedro Mar...
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184
Celtis laevigata, the Sugarberry, is a medium-sized tree native to North America. It is also sometimes referred to as Southern Hackberry, or in the southern U.S. Sugar Hackberry or just Hackberry. Sugarberry is easily confused with Common Hackberry, (Celtis occidentalis) where the range overlaps. Sugarberry has narrower leaves which are smoother above. The species can also be distinguished by habitat: where the ranges overlap, Common Hackberry occurs primarily in upland areas, whereas Sugarberr...
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186
Tamarack Pine (Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana) is a native tree that grows in northern, southern and central California. It tends to grow at elevations from 5000-11000 feet. Seed cones are nearly symmetric, mostly spreading, not serotinous, not persistent; mid and lower apophyses mostly shallowly domed; main branches ascending at tips.


187
Salix planifolia is a species of willow known by the common names planeleaf willow, diamondleaf willow, and tea-leafed willow. It is native to northern and western North America, including most of Canada and the western United States. It grows in many types of arctic and alpine habitats in the north, and mountainous areas in the southern part of its range. Salix planifolia is a shrub varying in size from low and bushy, to long thickets, to a treelike form 9 m (30 ft) in height. The leaves are ge...
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188
Cupressus forbesii (Tecate Cypress) is a species of cypress native to Southern California and Mexico. It is a relict species from a time when southern California's climate was cooler and wetter. It survives in a few, isolated locations in Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside and San Diego Counties, as well as northern Baja. It depends on intermittent fire for reproduction, but too frequent fires kill seedlings and threaten the survival of the species. The foliage is bright green with reddish bark. You...
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189
Ceanothus velutinus is a species of shrub in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae, known by the common names Red Root, Snowbrush Ceanothus and Tobacco Brush. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California to Colorado, where it grows in several habitat types including coniferous forest, chaparral, and various types of woodland. In California it is found primarily in the northern half of the state in the Coast Ranges, Sierras, Klamath and Modoc regions. It can grow up to 4 m...
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190
Salix ligulifolia is a species of willow known by the common name strapleaf willow. It is native to the western United States. It grows in moist and wet habitat, such as riverbanks, swamps, and floodplains, such as in the Sierra Nevada in California. Salix ligulifolia is a shrub growing up to 8 meters tall. The lance-shaped leaves may grow over 13 centimeters long. They are finely serrated along the edges, with some leaves appearing almost smooth-edged or studded with glands. The inflorescence i...
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191
Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana ssp. torreyana) is a rare native tree that grows in southern and central California.


192
The Torrey pine, Pinus torreyana, is the rarest pine species in the United States, an endangered species growing along the coast of San Diego County and on two of the Channel Islands. It is a broad, open-crowned pine tree growing to 8 - 17 meters (26 - 56 ft) tall in the wild, with 25 - 30 centimeters (9.8 - 11.8 in) long gray-green needles groups of five. The cones are stout and heavy, typically 8 - 15 cm (3.1 - 5.9 in) long and broad, and contain large, hard-shelled, but edible, pine nuts. The...
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194
The Colorado Pinyon, Two-needle Pinyon or Pion Pine (Pinus edulis) is a pine in the pinyon pine group whose ancestor was a member of the Madro-Tertiary Flora (a group of drought resistant trees) and is native to the United States. The range is in Colorado, southern Wyoming, eastern and central Utah, northern Arizona, New Mexico, and the Guadalupe Mountains in westernmost Texas. It occurs at moderate altitudes from 1600-2400 meter, rarely as low as 1400 meter and as high as 3000 meter. It is wide...
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195
Juniperus osteosperma (Utah Juniper; syn. J. utahensis) is a shrub or small tree reaching 3-6 meter (rarely to 9 meter) tall. It is native to the southwestern United States, in Utah, Nevada, Arizona, western New Mexico, western Colorado, Wyoming, southern Montana, southern Idaho and eastern California. It grows at moderate altitudes of 1,300-2,600 meter, on dry soils, often together with Pinus monophylla. The shoots are fairly thick compared to most junipers, 1.5-2 millimeter diameter. The leav...
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196
The Valley Oak grows into the largest of North American oaks. It ranges over the hot interior valleys of California where there is a water table within reach of the roots. Valley Oaks grow quickly, reaching 20 feet in 5 years, and 40 feet in 10 years, and up to 60 feet in 20 years. Mature specimens may attain an age of up to 600 years. Its thick, ridged bark is characteristic and evokes alligator hide. The sturdy trunk of the Valley oak may exceed two to three meters in diameter and its stature ...
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197
Fraxinus velutina (Velvet Ash or Arizona Ash or Modesto Ash) is a species of Fraxinus native to southwestern North America, in the United States from southern California east to Texas, and in Mexico from northern Baja California east to Coahuila and Nuevo Len. It is a small deciduous tree growing to 10 meter tall, with a trunk up to 30 centimeter diameter. The bark is rough gray-brown and fissured, and the shoots are velvety-downy. The leaves are 10-25 centimeter long, pinnately compound with f...
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198
Acer circinatum (Vine Maple) is a species of maple native to western North America, from southwest British Columbia to northern California, usually within 300 km of the Pacific Ocean coast. It most commonly grows as a large shrub growing to around 5-8 meters tall, but it will occasionally form a small to medium-sized tree, exceptionally to 18 meters tall. The shoots are slender and hairless. It typically grows in the understory below much taller forest trees, but can sometimes be found in open g...
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200
Betula occidentalis (Water Birch) is a species in the Betulaceae family native to western North America. In California its distribution is somewhat patchy, being found in the southern Sierras, Siskiyu and Modoc counties. It typically occurs along streams in mountainous regions from 2,000 ft. to over 11,000 ft. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 10 meter high, usually with multiple trunks. The bark is dark red-brown to blackish, and smooth but not exfoliating. The twigs are smooth o...
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