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Toxicoscordion fremontii
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Chaparral Zygadene
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Toxicoscordion fremontii

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About Chaparral Zygadene (Toxicoscordion fremontii) Toxicoscordion fremontii, known as the common star lily or Fr mont's deathcamas (after John C. Fr mont) or star zigadene, is an attractive wildflower found on grassy or woody slopes, or rocky outcrops, in many lower-lying regions of California, southwestern Oregon, and northern Baja California. Like other deathcamases, T. fremontii grows from a more or less spherical bulb, which in this species has a diameter of 20-35 mm. Its leaves can reach up to half a meter in length, but are typically half that length. They grow from the base of the plant. Flowers, which can be seen from March to June, grow in clusters. They have six petals (strictly, three petals and three very similar sepals), arranged symmetrically, giving rise to the name star-lily. Each flower is 1-4 cm across.
Plant Description
Plant Type
Perennial herb

Max. Height
2 ft (0.6 m)

Flower Color
White, Cream

Flowering Season

Native Status

Natural Setting
Site Type
Meadows, wooded slopes


Elevation ?
4' - 6524'

Annual Precip. ?
7.6" - 75.8"

Summer Precip. ?
0.14" - 2.25"

Coldest Month ?
28.8° F - 56.6° F

Hottest Month ?
55.3° F - 80.6° F

Humidity ?
0.01 vpd - 28.56 vpd

Sunset Zones ?
2, 7*, 8, 9, 14*, 15*, 16*, 17*, 18*, 19*, 20*, 21*, 22*, 23*, 24*

Landscaping Information
Water Requirement ?
Extremely Low
Very Low
Moderate - High

Propagation ?
For propagating by seed: No treatment; sow in fall. 2-3 mos. stratification may improve germination.

Common uses
Deer Resistant

Nursery Availability
Rarely Available

Other Names
Botanical Names
Zigadenus fremontii

Sources include: Wikipedia. All text shown in the "About" section of these pages is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Plant observation data provided by the participants of the California Consortia of Herbaria, Sunset information provided by Jepson Flora Project. Propogation from seed information provided by the Santa Barbara Botanical Garden from "Seed Propagation of Native California Plants" by Dara E. Emery. Sources of plant photos include CalPhotos, Wikimedia Commons, and independent plant photographers who have agreed to share their images with Calscape. Other general sources of information include Calflora, CNPS Manual of Vegetation Online, Jepson Flora Project, Las Pilitas, Theodore Payne, Tree of Life, The Xerces Society, and information provided by CNPS volunteer editors, with special thanks to Don Rideout. Climate data used in creation of plant range maps is from PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University, using 30 year (1981-2010) annual "normals" at an 800 meter spatial resolution.

Links:   Jepson eFlora Taxon Page  CalPhotos  Wikipedia  Calflora

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