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Abies grandis

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About Grand Fir (Abies grandis) Abies grandis (Grand Fir, Giant Fir, Lowland White Fir, Great Silver Fir, Western White Fir, Vancouver Fir, or Oregon Fir) is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring at altitudes of sea level to 1,800 meter. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 40-70 meter (exceptionally 80 meter) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 meter. The leaves are needle-like, flattened, and grow in a single flat plane, 3-6 centimeter long and 2 millimeter wide by 0.5 millimeter thick, slightly notched at the tip. The leave color is glossy dark green above, and green-white below. The leaf arrangement is spiral on the shoot, but with each leaf variably twisted at the base so they all lie in two more-or-less flat ranks on either side of the shoot. The cones are 6-12 centimeter long and 3.5-4.5 centimeter broad, with about 100-150 scales. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6 months after pollination.
Plant Description
Plant Type

Max. Height
25 - 240 ft (7.6 - 73.2 m)


Growth Rate


Flowering Season

Native Status

Natural Setting
Shade, Part Shade

Elevation ?
11' - 14090'

Annual Precip. ?
22.1" - 118.8"

Summer Precip. ?
0.29" - 4.04"

Coldest Month ?
10.5° F - 50.8° F

Hottest Month ?
33.8° F - 73.2° F

Humidity ?
0.01 vpd - 24.00 vpd

Soil Description
Prefers sandy or loamy soils. Does not grow well in clay soils.

Sunset Zones ?
2, 3, 4*, 5*, 6*, 7*, 14, 15*, 16*, 17*, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24

Landscaping Information
Ease of Care
Moderately Easy

Propagation ?
For propagating by seed: 1 mo. stratification; for small lots of seeds, scarification may give better results. No treatment can also give good results (USDA Forest Service 1974).

Nursery Availability
Rarely Available

Other Names
Common Names
Western White Fir, Vancouver Fir, Oregon Fir, Lowland White Fir, Great Silver Fir, Giant Fir

Sources include: Wikipedia. All text shown in the "About" section of these pages is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Plant observation data provided by the participants of the California Consortia of Herbaria, Sunset information provided by Jepson Flora Project. Propogation from seed information provided by the Santa Barbara Botanical Garden from "Seed Propagation of Native California Plants" by Dara E. Emery. Sources of plant photos include CalPhotos, Wikimedia Commons, and independent plant photographers who have agreed to share their images with Calscape. Other general sources of information include Calflora, CNPS Manual of Vegetation Online, Jepson Flora Project, Las Pilitas, Theodore Payne, Tree of Life, The Xerces Society, and information provided by CNPS volunteer editors, with special thanks to Don Rideout. Climate data used in creation of plant range maps is from PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University, using 30 year (1981-2010) annual "normals" at an 800 meter spatial resolution.

Links:   Jepson eFlora Taxon Page  CalPhotos  Wikipedia  Calflora

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